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From: Elizabeth Whitaker <>
Subject: Re: [APG] Native American blood lines
Date: Mon, 17 Sep 2007 11:06:30 -0400
References: <46EDD96F.9020303@swbell.net>
In-Reply-To: <46EDD96F.9020303@swbell.net>

There was an oil boom in Oklahoma in the 1920s,
mainly on Choctaws' land. I first heard about it when I read
Don Whitehead's The FBI Story as a teenager.

In most of the rest of the South, what Indians who
remained and were known to be Indians were confined to
small areas and had almost no economic opportunities.
For anyone in the U.S. before 1965, having dark skin meant
social ostracism if not relegation to the inferior opportunities
available to the majority of "colored" people.

I don't have dark skin, but I grew up mainly in small towns
as part of a family who often looked very alien to locals
and who didn't regularly attend religious services. I
was born in 1958 and don't clearly remember racial
segregation as legal.

Elizabeth Whitaker

Mary Douglass wrote:
> Colleagues,
> I have read with much interest of the "stigma" associated with being
> Native American at different times. I have a very large court case full
> of testimony concerning my great-grandmother's attempt to be registered
> as a member of the Choctaw Nation just before Oklahoma statehood. She
> was second-generation Irish, widow of a second-generation Scotsman who
> had survived his young Choctaw wife. Harmon was adopted into the tribe
> as Susannah's husband and Joanna, the second wife, was trying to cash in
> on the land lotteries. She failed. One of her daughters married a
> Choctaw man. Their son was admitted into the tribe, but not their
> daughters until after another court suit was filed. At least in the
> early years of the 20th century in Oklahoma, being Indian was not a bad
> thing.

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