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Archiver > APG > 2007-12 > 1197090068


From: Ray Beere Johnson II <>
Subject: Re: [APG] Accreditation - Retry
Date: Fri, 7 Dec 2007 21:01:08 -0800 (PST)
In-Reply-To: <778789.82567.qm@web63407.mail.re1.yahoo.com>


To me, the most telling thing about this
message is the fact that the writer prominently
features her Ph. D., but her "paper" contains a
misspelling in the header, poor punctuation in
the first sentence [the first comma], misuse of
words, as in "there are recognized accredited
[should be accreditation] agencies", and
ungrammatical phrases. Reading it left my
"editorial fingers" twitching to attack it with a
blue pencil.
In other words, what matters is your actual
ability, not the letters after your name.
"Credentials" of this type, based on something
other than an actual, objective test of a
person's abilities, may mean something or
nothing. If the members of the APG would stop
being impressed with how much more money and
prestige would be theirs if they could only
secure the acceptance of academia, they might
remember this and focus on being good
genealogical researchers again. Then, perhaps
they might even consider ethics that were about
substance and not form.
However, although I know there are many
members who still do value substance over form, I
begin to despair that the leadership will ever
reverse this trend in the organisation as a
whole.
Ray Beere Johnson II

--- "LaWanna Blount, Ph.D." <>
wrote:

>
> ACCREDITATION, WHAT IT IS, HOW IT WORKS, AND
> AKAMAI
> UNIVERSITY IN THE MILLIEU
>
> Accreditation in higher education is a
> complex, and a
> confusing activity that most people do not
> clearly
> understand. My goal in this short paper is to
> shed
> some light on this concept and discuss Akamai
> University in the milieu of unaccredited
> colleges.
>
> In a nutshell, Accreditation is verification
> or a
> confirmation that a college or school provides
> an
> education that meets standards. Accreditation
> legitimizes an institution to the public
> Students
> that are enrolled in an accredited University
> are
> eligible to receive Federal Financial aid,
> receive
> credit transfers and upon graduation are more
> likely
> to obtain jobs and advancement in jobs. (www,
> worldwidelearn.com)
>
> The purpose of accreditation is to evaluate the
> operations of an educational institution with
> standards to ensure that quality education is
> being
> provided in higher education. It is a yardstick
> with
> which to measure our many universities and
> colleges.
> Many unaccredited colleges and universities may
> be
> operating with high standards, but may be too
> new to
> be ready for an accreditation review. It
> usually takes
> about 5-6 years before a college/university has
> their
> infrastructure built up enough to apply to an
> accrediting agency for an accreditation review.
> Also,
> the financial outlay involved in an
> accreditation
> review can be overwhelming.
>
> An accreditation review is voluntary, stressful
> and an
> expensive process, which is performed by
> private
> accrediting agencies, which have been
> established for
> the very purpose of reviewing and evaluating
> schools,
> colleges and universities and some departments
> within
> a college or university. The United States is
> unique
> in this regard for private accreditation
> agencies are
> responsible to maintain this accountability of
> colleges and universities and the government
> and the
> public relies on these agencies to provide this
> service in the United States. Other countries
> depend
> on their governments to provide the quality
> control
> standards that U. S. accreditation agencies
> provide
> in the U.S. In the early 20th century, before
> accrediting agencies came into existence, the
> large
> philanthropic foundations (Carnegie and
> Rockefeller
> Foundations) served this function and if
> standards
> were down, the funds were held up until things
> were
> brought up to standard.
>
> The Recognized Accreditors
>
> When schools, colleges or universities are
> ready and
> want to undergo an accreditation review they
> apply to
> a particular accrediting agency of their
> choice. This
> investigation can take up to 6 months or to
> several
> years. There are many accrediting agencies.
> However,
> not all of them are approved by the United
> States
> Department of Education (USDE) and the Council
> on
> Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). The
> accreditation agencies that are approved by
> CHEA or
> the USDE are listed on the website of CHEA
> which can
> be found at www.chea.org.
>
> Since the advent of distance learning
> universities
> many fake accrediting agencies have sprung up
> to
> accredit the fake universities. Thus, these
> fake
> universities can write on their brochures.
> fully
> accredited and they state the fake
> accreditation
> agency. They do this because they know that
> most
> people do not understand about accreditation
> and the
> recognized accreditation agencies. People
> should pay
> attention by whom the institution is
> accredited. When
> an institution claims accreditation the most
> important
> aspect is by whom are they are accredited? As
> I will
> explain below, there are recognized accredited
> agencies and you should be familiar with those
> recognized agencies.
>
> The application fee for an accreditation review
> or
> evaluation can run up over $10,000, There is an
> application fee, an evaluation fee for each
> committee
> member, a readiness assessment fee, which is
> done by
> an independent agency evaluator to assist an
> application institution in preparing the
> on-site
> evaluation. In addition, there are subject
> specialist
> fees for each course. The institution also is
> expected to pay the travel and lodging fees for
> all
> the accreditation committee. There are also
> other
> incidental fees.
>
> Some, not all, recognized accrediting agencies
> perform
> a preliminary review to ensure that the
> institution
> has legitimate operations and then may be given
> a
> provisional status. This may take months and
> sometimes years. (Bear and Bear, 2003, 41)
>
> After making application, an institution
> receives the
> visitation team on site for an evaluation of
> the
> institutions operations and mission The
> accreditation
> team thoroughly evaluates an institution’s
> operations
> and mission, philosophy and total
> infrastructure. It
> reviews all its documents; legal, financial,
> operating
> policies, its long term and short term
> planning,
> curriculum, student policies, theses, syllabi,
> student
> files and has meetings with administrators,
> faculty,
> students, staff and alumni.
>
> These accreditation reviews may take months
> and
> sometimes as long as several years. Some
> agencies
> confer a school or college with a candidacy for
> accreditation.These schools then are policed
> for
> another year or so and if they fulfill the
> requirements that are needed are granted full
> accreditation. Some agencies do not include a
> candidacy step and declare a school accredited
> or not
> accredited (Bear and Bear 2003, 41).
>
> After an institution is accredited there will
> be
> inspections, about every five years in order
> to
> determine that it is still maintaining the
> accreditation standards in its operations.
> When an
> accreditation team makes further visits to
> accredited
> institutions new programs or changes in
> programs since
> the prior accreditation review are also up for
> review.
> In addition, if the institution has changed
> management, or changed a site location for a
> particular aspect of its programs, these
> aspects will
> also be reviewed.
>
> Accreditation by the recognized agencies that I
> will
> specifically identify later in this paper is
> the only
> way we currently have to identify those
> institutions
> that are operating with quality standards.
> However,
> currently, with the advent of distance
> education,
> there are new accrediting agencies that are
> requesting
> the approval of the USDE and CHEA.
>
> However, it should be noted that the Carnegie
> Commission on Higher Education (a non profit
> group
> concerned with accountability in higher
> education at
> the national level) in the early 1990s in
> speaking of
> the future of accrediting agencies stated,
> accrediting
> organizations will lose their usefulness and
> slowly
> disappear. How can this happen? Already
> competency
> tests are being developed at major corporations
> hiring
> university graduates, soon major employers will
> be
> following suit. In addition, the whole idea of
> regional accreditation was developed in an era
> when
> students flowed from a particular region to
> obtain
> education; regional high schools serviced a
> community college In that context the semester
> system
> was the standard delivery system for higher
> education. With distance education we have
> broken the
> boundaries of these time and space parameters
> (Dunn,
> 2000, 35). Currently students access the same
> courses
> and programs from anywhere in the world at
> anytime.
> Distance education instructors work evenings
> and
> weekends and through the year. Open admissions
> is
> already the norm.
>
> There are some colleges and universities that
> are new
> and their operations are meeting the standards.
> However, it takes about 5-7 years for a college
> or
> university to develop its infrastructure and
> have
> students graduate through its programs. Today
> it is
> difficult for unaccredited colleges to obtain
> students
> without accreditation. It is the catch 22
> situations,
> you cannot apply for an accreditation review
> unless
> you have students and to obtain students you
> almost
> need to be accredited. There are many quality
> institutions that are not accredited. Every
> college
> and university must start out not accredited.
>
> With the advent of new technologies and the
> Internet
> for distance learning, fake institutions are
> becoming
> ever more prevalent on the eduscape, which
> brings many
> problems and issues for higher education.
> However,
> these have been with us for a long time. John
> Bear
> (2003), who is considered the authority on
> distance
> education and was part of the dip scam
> operation in
> 1970 -1990s, started to track and study
> distance
> learning institutions since the 1970s and his
> consecutive publication, Directory of Degrees
> by
> Distance Learning is published every few years.
> He has
> until the 15th edition listed the institutions
> of
> which the fake owners were prosecuted.
> However, the
> problem is that fake owners surface again after
> their
> penalties are carried out and reestablish the
> schools
> some place else and start all over again. Many
> of
> these fake schools stated in their brochures
> that they
> “are ready for accreditation” and other kinds
> of
> statements such as they “are candidates for
> accreditation” Some of these schools also set
> up their
> own accreditation agencies. Thus, claiming they
> are
> “fully accredited.” Apparently, there is a
> lucrative
> market out there for people to keep on
> enrolling in
> fake schools or there wouldn’t be so many of
> them.
> States are tightening up their laws to drive
> these
> diploma mills and fake schools out. Some states
> have
> very tight laws. The state of Oregon is one
> state that
> has strict laws governing the institutions of
> that
> state.
>
> Recognized Accreditation agencies are very
> clear to
> applicants for accreditation that they do not
> allow
> them to make statements to students about their
> activities and events preparing for an
> accreditation
> review. A college or university is either
> accredited
> or not accredited.
>
> It is also important to understand that
> specialized
> schools within a University often seek
> accreditation
> by professional accrediting agencies. For
> example, the
> American Bar Association, in the School of Law
> in
> universities, or the American Medical
> Association
> within a medical school. A university could
> be
> accredited, as well as specific specialized
> schools by
> professional accrediting agencies. These
> recognized
> professional agencies are all listed with CHEA
> and are
> on its website.
>
> The Accreditation Agencies
>
> All of the regional accreditation agencies, six
> national accreditation agencies including DETC
> (Distance Education and Training Council) and
> all of
> the approximately 50 specialized and
> professional
> accreditors are recognized and overseen by the
> CHEA
> (Council on Higher Education Accreditation”)
>
> The recognition by CHEA of regional,
> specialized and
> professional accrediting organizations, affirms
> that
> standards and processes of accrediting
> organizations
> are consistent with quality, improvement, and
> accountability expectations that CHEA has
> established.
>
> To determine if an accreditor is recognized by
> CHEA go
> to CHEA'S
> website at
> www.chea.org/Institutions/search.cgm)) If
> the college or accreditor isn’t listed then it
> is
> likely that the school is not accredited by a
> recognized agency (Bear 2003 p. 43).
>
> The six regional associations that are approved
> by
> CHEA have responsibility to accredit schools
> in one
> region of the United States and its
> territories.
>
> These six accrediting agencies are: North
> Central
> Association of Colleges and Schools, Northwest
> Association of Schools and Colleges, Middle
> States
> Association of Colleges and Schools, New
> England
> Association of Schools and Colleges, Southern
> Association of Colleges and Schools, and the
> Western
> Association Schools and Colleges, The postal
> and email
> addresses and websites of these regional
> accrediting
> agencies are all in Bears’ Guide to Earning
> Degrees
> by Distance Learning (2003, 45).
>
> There are two National Accrediting Agencies
> that are
> recognized:
>
> These are:
> Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges
> and
> Schools (ACISS)
>
> Distance Education and Training Council (DETC)
>
> There are also Recognized Professional
> Accrediting
> Agencies in specialized areas, which I referred
> to
> previously, in the Arts, Dance, Landscape
> Architecture, Continuing Education, Dentistry,
> Law,
> Health and other specialized fields. All
> fifty of
> these recognized specialized accrediting
> associations
> are listed in Bear and Bear, 2003, 45-50 with
> addresses, websites and phone numbers. However,
> there
> are many accrediting agencies that are not
> recognized
> under GAAP, the General Accrediting Principles.
> GAAP
> means the Generally Accepted Accrediting
> Principles.
> These are the policies that are accepted and
> followed by the important people in
> accreditation such
> as university registrars, admissions officers,
> corporate human resources officers and
> government
> agencies. These policies form the GAAP
> principles
> (Bear and Bear, (2003, 45-50. )
>
> The agencies not recognized by either the
> Council on
> Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) or the
> U.S.
> Department of Education (USDE) nor by
> ministries of
> other countries are listed in Bear and Bear
> (2003 on
> pages 51 to 61.
>
>
> Akamai University, an Unaccredited University
> in the
> State of Hawaii
>
> In the 1990s unaccredited colleges and
> universities
> and distance learning universities were not
> regulated
> at all in the state of Hawaii (Bear and Bear,
> 2003,
> 36) Thus, hordes of many fly-by- night fake
> distance
> learning and post office box colleges flocked
> to the
> state of Hawaii. There were many complaints and
> international inquiries before the Hawaii
> Office of
> Consumer Protection. In 1999 the legislature
> passed a
> law, which called for the regulation of
> unaccredited
> college and universities. Subsequently, the
> University of Hawaii and other agencies
> submitted
> legislation that resulted in a revised 446E.
> (Bear and
> Bear, 2003,36), Among other requirements, any
> unaccredited college needed at least 25
> full-time
> students during the year and one employee
> living in
> Hawaii in order to remain in business. The
> state of
> Hawaii oversees its unaccredited schools using
> Hawaii
> Revised Statute HRS 446E- 2. Dr. Douglass
> Capogrossi,
> The President of Akamai University, played an
> instrumental role in the revision of the
> Statute, with
> the disclosure disclaimer, as the state of
> Hawaii
> wanted to throw out all unaccredited higher
> education
> institutions. The law states that all
> unaccredited
> colleges or universities must issue the
> following
> disclaimer on all published advertising, print
> and
> electronic:
>
> The statute HRS 446E-2 Disclosures…
> a. Any unaccredited institution shall disclose
> in all
> catalogs, promotional materials and contracts
> for
> instruction, the fact that the institution is
> not
> accredited by any nationally recognized
> accrediting
> agency listed by the United States Secretary of
> Education. The disclosure shall be made in a
> type size
> as large or larger than any other text in the
> catalog,
> promotional material, or contract for
> instruction,
> excluding the name of the unaccredited
> institution,
> and shall be presented in a manner reasonably
> calculated to draw the attention of the reader.
> If the
> unaccredited institution includes in its
> catalogs,
> promotional materials, or contracts for
> instruction
> any other information relating in any manner to
> accreditation, or to accreditation by an agency
> not
> nationally recognized by the United State
> Secretary of
> Education, the disclosure required by this
> subsection
> shall be repeated on every page on which the
> information appear. Where the information is
> presented
> electronically, the disclosure shall be made
> directly
> preceding or following the information. The
> disclosure shall read as follows: (Name of
> Degree
> Granting Institution) IS NOT ACCREDITED BY AN
> ACCREDITING AGENCY recognized by the United
> States
> Department of Education.
>
>
> b. Where promotional material for an
> unaccredited
> institution consists of an advertisement in a
> periodical published by a person or entity that
> is not
> affiliated with the unaccredited institution,
> the
> disclosure required in subsection (a) may be
> abbreviated to state as follows: NOT ACCREDITED
> BY AN
> AGENCY RECOGNIZED BY THE U.S. SECRETARY OF
> EDUCATION. The disclosure required under this
> subsection shall be made in a type size as
> large or
> larger than any other text in the
> advertisement.
>
> Without the revised statute unaccredited
> Universities
> in Hawai would not exist.
>
> Conclusion.
> In the paper I have set out some information
> to you
> as members of the APG e-list, which should add
> to your
> knowledge about accreditation. Further
> information
> can be found in Bears’ guides. Their chapter
> on
> accreditation is the best that I have ever
> read.
>
> LaWanna Lease Blount, Ph.D.
>
> References
> Bear, John B., Ph.D. & Bear, Mariah, P.,
> M.A.,
> Bears’ Guide to Earning a Degree by Distance
> Learning.
> 15th ed. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2003.
> Dunn, "The Virtualizing of Education", The
> Futurist.
> Maarch-April, 2000, 34-38.
>
>
>
>
>
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