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Archiver > BAVARIAN-ANCESTORS > 2001-07 > 0996528030


From: "Kenneth E. Madl" <>
Subject: Re: [BAV-ANC] Occupations
Date: Mon, 30 Jul 2001 15:20:30 -0600


7/30/01 12:51:54 PM, Marian Dietrich <> wrote:

>I have received 2 documents from a church in Bavaria which states the
>following as occupations.
>
>Schaffler u. Soldner (umlauts over the a and the o)



In looking at the German genealogy records of the last century, many of the
occupations are listed as Häusler, Söldner (both are types of small farmers) and
Inman. The following is an excerpt from of an article that Mrs. Friedl Haertel wrote
in BBLF (Blätter des Bayerischen Familienvereins für Familienkunde; the annual
brochure of the BLF) 54 (1991), p. 39. She gives a very good explanation of what
an Inman was. An English translation follows (which was provided by Reinhard
Riepl), along with another message explaining the term Söldner.

============================

"Ein Inmann, genannt Häuslmann (Inweib, Inleute), gehörte zur gehobenen Schicht
der landlosen Arbeiter auf dem Dorfe. Er bewohnte ein Inhäusl (I-Heisl) des Hofes
(nach 1800 hatten manche Bauern 2-3) mit Stube, Stübel, Stall und Stadel unter
einem Dach. Der Häuslmann mußte bei Bedarf am Hof helfen, erhielt dann die
Kost und etwas Geld. Frau und Kinder arbeiteten für die Kost mit. Das war in
Zeiten, da man täglich nicht nur betete, sonder inbrüstig flehte "Unser tägliches Brot
gib uns heute!", schon Sicherheit vor Hunger. Außerhalb der Stoßzeiten arbeiteten
viele als Tag- oder Handwerker. Der Häuslmann durfte sich noch 1930 bei meinen
Großeltern in Poppenreut 2 Eigentumskühe, 1 Kalb, 1 Ferkel u. Hühner in seinem
Stall vom Hof füttern, erhielt das Brennholz, durfte Sommerkorn (Roggen) anbauen,
Kartoffeln und Kraut setzen. Er hatte ein Kerbholz unter dem Traim stecken, in das
jeder Arbeitstag eingeschnitten wurde.

So ähnlich dürfen wir uns die Verhältnisse um 1642 vorstellen, denn auf dem Land
erhielten sich Wirtschafts- und Sozialverhältnisse über Jahrhunderte. Im Steuerbuch
der Herrschaft Wolfstein von 1615 hat fast jeder Inmann 1 Kuh im Wert von 7-10 fl,
oft dazu 1 Geiß im Wert von 1 fl 4ß. Versteuert er gar 1 Roß, Wert 10 fl muß er
Säumer gewesen sein. Wahrscheinlich erhielt der Inmann auch einen kleinen Anteil
der Flachsernte.

Die Kinder der Inleute und Kleinbauern wurden mit 10 Jahren als "Kindsdirn und
Hiatabua" (Kindsmagd und Hütjunge; so noch 1920) in Dienst gegeben, weil sie
dann "aus der Schüssel" waren, Essen, Kleidung und Liegerstatt erhielten. 1614
heißt es in der Beschreibung der Vormundschaften der Herrschaft Wolfstein über
Bauernkinder: "Dieser Pupill ist bei Diensten. Er erhält nichts, weil er sich von
seinem Lidlohn selbst kleidet". "Die 2 Pupillen werden, bis sie ihr 10-jähriges Alter
erreichen, von dem Interesse, was ihr Erbgütl erträgt, erzogen", oder "die Mutter
unterhält sie mit aller Notdurft, bis jeder sein 10-jähriges Alter erreicht. Ein Knecht
erhielt noch 1911 neben Jahreslohn und Drangeld beim Einstand auf Lichtmeß 4
Hemden, 1 Hose, 1 Rock, die Magd 3 Hemden, Werktagsgewand und Schürze, bei
Viehverkauf den "Leykauf". Die große Dirn mußte alle 14 Tage backen, das
bedeutete abends nach der Stallarbeit im riesigen Backtrog das "Ura" (Sauerteig)
anrühren, um 3 Uhr früh zum Teigkneten aufstehen und schwere Muskelarbeit
verrichten. Dafür erhielt sie 1 Laib Brot mit 10-12 Pfund, den die Eltern am
gleichen Tag abholten. Im Winter mußte jeder Knecht nach dem Essen 1/2 Strang,
jede Magd 1 ganzen Strang Haar spinnen. 1930 kamen Schneider und Naderin
(Näherin) auf die Stör, aber früher mußte jede Frau alles selbst nähen können.

Ein Inmann hatte also mit Wohnung, Heizung, Kost, Kleidung und etwas Lohngeld
sowie Geld aus Verkauf von Kuh, Kalb oder Geiß ein verhältnismäßig gesichertes
Dasein. Der Kinderreichtum jener Zeit bedeutete natürlich immer Entbehrung, auch
wenn Seuchen, wie Pest, Ruhr, Fleckenfieber, Bräune (Diphterie) und die
schwarzen Blattern den Bevölkerungsüberschuß von Zeit zu Zeit beseitigten. Wer
damals 10 Jahre alt wurde, war eigentlich nicht mehr umzubringen. Trotzdem lebte
der Häuslmann in bedrückender Abhängigkeit."


------------------------------------------------

An Inmann, also named "Häuslmann" (Inweib, Inleute), belonged to the better-off
landless farm workers. He lived in an "Inhäusl" (I-Heisl) on the farm (after the year
1800 many farmers had even 2-3 of them) with parlor, small room, stable and barn
all under one roof. Each workday was chalked up on the wooden beam supporting
the roof.

The Häuslmann had to help on the farm whenever necessary and received food and
some money for that. His wive and children also worked for food. That meant
security from hunger in times, where one not only prayed each day, but even
fervently cried to God "our daily bread give us today!". Outside of peak times, many
of them worked as day laborers or craftsmen.

Still in 1930 the Häuslmann of Mrs. Haertel´s grandparents in Poppenreut was
allowed to keep 2 cows of his own, 1 calf, 1 piglet and chickens in his own stable
and he could feed them without paying for it. He received firewood, was allowed to
cultivate summer grain (rye), plant potatoes and cabbage. He had a notch wood, in
which each workday was notched.

Similarily we may imagine the conditions around the year 1642, for in the country,
economical and social circumstances remained unchanged over centuries. In the tax
book of the dominion Wolfstein in 1615, almost each Inmann has a 1 cow worth 7-
10 fl, often in addition 1 goat worth 1 fl 4 ß. If he even had to pay tax for a horse,
worth 10 fl, he must have been a "Säumer" (owner of a pack-horse). Probably the
Inmann received also a little share out of the flaxharvest.

When the children of the Inmen and small farmers reached the age of ten, they
were put into service as "Kindsdirn and Hiatabua" (nurse maid and herdsman boy;
done still in 1920) because then they were "out of the bowl", and received meal,
clothing and bed. In 1614 the description of the guardianships in the dominion
Wolfstein states about farmer children: "This Pupill is in service. He receives
nothing, because he acquired his own clothing from his wages". "The 2 Pupillen are
raised, until they reach the age of 10, out of the interest, which their herited property
bears", or "the mother maintains them with all necessities until each reaches the age
of 10."

Still in 1911 a farmhand received 4 shirts, 1 pair of pants, 1 jacket, the maid 3 shirts,
weekdays clothing and apron and when cattle was sold the "Leykauf", a form of
additional payment, besides his regular payment and extra money as "Einstand"
(payment for one´s footing) on Lichtmeß (Maria Lichtmeß, candlemas, celebrated
on February 2nd) . The senior farmgirl had to bake every 14 days, which meant in
the evening, after work in the stable was done, to stir the "Ura" (leaven) in the
gigantic kneading trough, get up at 3 o'clock in the morning for kneading the
dough, which meant doing hard physical work. For that she received 1 loaf of bread
weighing 10-12 pounds, which her parents picked up the same day. During winter,
after meals, each farmhand had to spin half a hank of flax, each farmgirl 1 entire
hank of flax. In 1930, tailor and seamstress went to the houses to offer their services,
but in former times each woman had to be able to sew everything herself.

Thus an Inmann had a comparatively secure existence , with dwelling, heating, food
and clothing provided for and some money earned through work as well as through
the sale of cow, calf or goat. The large number of children of that time naturally
always meant deprivation, even when epidemics, like pestilence, dysentery, spot
fever, diphteria and smallopox eliminated the surplus in population from time to
time. Whoever, at that time reached the age of 10, had a good chance of becoming
really old. In spite of all that, the Häuslmann lived in depressing dependence.

============================

In response to a question posed on a Newsgroup ("My dictionary says, that a
Söldner was a mercenary, what actually did he do?") , Reinhard sent the following
reply:

"In Bavaria, Söldner does n o t mean mercenary!. A Söldner owned a small house
with a garden around, a "Sölde". He might have owned one or two cows and some
goat. But normally, he could not subsist on farming alone but was forced to work for
others in addition or as a craftsman."


Clemens Pongratz (http://home.t-online.de/home/Clemens.Pongratz/) elaborated
on this on Sept. 8, 1999:

"The taxsystem in rural Bavaria knew several grades (in the Past!!) The 1/1 Bauer
or ganzer Bauer, he owned a complete farm. How big such a 'complete' farm had
been, differs from area to area.
the 1/2 or Halbbauer, he owned half the size.
the 1/4 or Viertelbauer, he owned the quarter of the regular size.
the 1/8 Bauer or Achtelbauer or SÖLDNER, he owned and had to pay the taxes
only for the eighth part of the farm.
In some areas already the 1/4tel Bauer had been called Söldner. 1/16 and 1/32
farmer existed and were also called Söldner.

"When there was no ground left but for the house, they were called Häusler.

"The right of the house-owner was limited not by the ground the house was standing
on but by the size of the roof (the raindrops falling from the roof limited his
property). Usually at this point the taxsystem ended.

Following down the ranking are:
Leithuemer the former , mostly old , owner
Tagelöhner he worked for others
Inwohner persons living in rented rooms

Usually a Söldner could subsist from his small farm. In cities the taxsystem has
been different , but for the farmers there it was similar."


Reinhard then provided more details:

"You should keep in mind that what he states is correct for BAVARIA. Alas, the
region around Passau did NOT belong to Bavaria during this time, but to the
Hochstift Passau! That´s why there you won´t find all the Viertl- Achtlbauern and so
on. In most regions, a Söldner could subsist on his farm, as Clemens writes. But, in
the Freyung region, a Söldner (the term is used there too, but comparatively seldom)
usually could not and was forced to work for others in addition to his farm work.

"On the other hand, in the Freyung region a 'Häusler' was NOT only somebody
who only owned a house without any land. On the contrary, over there even big
farmers were called 'Häusler' quite often!"



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