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Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L] BB News No. 35A dtd 15 may 1998 (edited)
Date: Sun, 4 Jul 1999 07:20:39 EDT

(issued biweekly by )
May 15, 1998
(all rights reserved)

This special edition of the newsletter contains the second half of Part 4
of the Unger Trip Report, a History of Oslip, and Comments on the Name

Wednesday, May 21, 1997: Our first lecture was "European and American
Values", by Jennifer Fratianni. It is said that German people think of
Austrians as more laid back and fun-loving than they. Austria is not densely
populated - the total population in 1997 was 7 3/4 million people, less than
the population of New York City. Tourism is Austria's number one industry.
Generally Austrians are conservative in their life style - they don't exploit
their resources. For example, they promote composting as a means of dealing
with trash disposal. Austrians take care of their elderly - they live with
their families rather than in retirement homes or nursing facilities. Food
shopping is still considered a social event. Punctuality is sacred in
Austria. If you are invited for dinner you had best be on time. They serve
on time. Dinner usually starts with a drink of schnapps. It is customary
not to re-fill a glass until it is empty, rather than fill a glass when it is
still partially full, as is rather commonly done in America.

The second lecture of the morning was entitled "Folklore and Folk Music".
Folklore is centered around the customs of the land. Christmas is not as
commercialized as it is in the USA. The song "Silent Night" was primarily
written for voice and the guitar, because often the church organ was broken
and they needed a song parishioners could sing. Unofficially the national
anthem of Austria is the "Blue Danube Waltz". Austrians are always looking
for a reason to party. Children usually live at home until they marry.

After lunch we had time to explore Salzburg on our own. Most of our
Elderhostel group were scheduled to return to the USA on Sunday, but as my
wife and I were staying, I went for a walk to check-out the train station in
preparation for our Burgenland departure early Sunday morning.

The evening event was a concert at the "Fortress". It is located high atop a
hill, and we elected to take the cable car to get to the top. Once there we
discovered there was still a journey ahead of us, walking through several old
stone corridors, and up many well used stairs until we reached the upper
level. The view from the top of the Fortress is breath-taking. Our Mozart
concert took place in a large old room with a seating capacity of only 150
persons. The performance was great, but to achieve the desired acoustics, it
was necessary to keep all doors and windows closed, and it got very warm.
During intermission they opened all doors and windows.

Thursday, May 22, 1997: Our first lecture was entitled "Paracelsus - a
Medieval Doctor". In medieval times barbers performed surgery and healers
focused on preventing illness. Medical practices were often linked to the
teachings of the church. Latin was the language of learning. Herbs were
used to treat the body and the soul. Subsequently Philip Theophrastus von
Hohenheim, who later called himself Paracelsus, was born in Eisiedeln,
Switzerland in 1493, the son of a physician. He was a rebellious individual
who traveled extensively throughout Europe, studying art and medicine, and
wrote many books about his medical beliefs. He was known as a
"hands-on-doctor". He claimed he had learned to see nature with his own eye,
undiluted by the teaching of books and schools. His study of nature
convinced him of the true merits of herbs, and he consequently developed the
first concept of medicine and pharmacy. He became famous for finding the
healing power of herbs and the merits of mineral water. He taught his
students that books provided limited learning, and that one also needed
practical experience. Paracelsus believed that he had a special relationship
with God. He proclaimed that health involved a critical balance, and illness
was caused by an imbalance with God. He taught that drugs can cure, when
used properly, but could cause death if used in excess. He died in Salzburg
in 1541. Our second lecture was "Austria Today - a Discussion of Austria".
At one time Austria was largely agrarian - today agriculture occupies only
about 5% of the population. After WW2 many of Austria's industries were
confiscated and shipped off to Russia - those that remained were
nationalized. The Marshall Plan was of significant help to Austria - but
Burgenland, under Russian control, suffered much. Later the nationalized
industries were shifted to privatization - but some thought this only meant
money going out of one pocket into another. Most of Austria's industry is
now located along the Danube River basins. (The completion of the
Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in Germany in 1992, which connects the Rhine and Main
Rivers with the Danube, now makes it possible for barges to travel from the
North Sea to the Black Sea using this inland waterway.) Austria is turning
away from its early socialistic views, Austrians now primarily believe they
are paying for too many benefits for foreigners - a major factor when they
have four hundred thousand migrant workers with a total Austrian population
of less than eight million. They jokingly say their politics now involve the
"Watermelon Party" - red on the inside and green on the outside, i.e.
liberals versus conservatives. As a consequence, their government is now
focusing more on economic factors. They laughingly consider their old
socialistic approach as "Eating the decorated cake they haven't baked yet".
American companies are showing interest in Austria, for example, Chrysler's
Plymouth Voyager Minivans are now being assembled in Austria. Anyone working
for the government is considered a privileged person. Austria is also
experiencing political stresses from outside. During our stay in Salzburg,
"skin heads" scheduled a large demonstration in Salzburg. Before any major
problems could evolve, Austrian authorities arrested 200 demonstrators - 80%
were from Germany. The Austrian government only recognizes specific churches
- established by prior treaty. Priesthood for women is being considered -
and there are currently women who are Lutheran Pastors. Greek Orthodox
Priests are allowed to marry - even though they are Catholic.

Individuals consider the money they make as disposable income, because,
through taxation, heath care and retirement pensions are provided by the
government. Universities were once considered a place to "park" young
unemployed people, but now that is changing for economic reasons. Since
tourism is a top economic factor, there was once consideration for "milking
the tourist", but that idea was soon dropped because it also milks the
natives. Price of a three course meal varies significantly in, from about 210
Austrian Shillings in Vienna, to about 70 AS in Burgenland.

Our afternoon event was a field trip to the Hellbrunn Palace, located about
6km south of Salzburg. Hellbrunn is famous far and wide because of its
Wasserspiele, or "water games" . There are trick water fountains, i.e. water
spurts from strange places at unexpected times. The garden has a large table
surrounded with fixed chairs. The host would invite guests for dinner, sit
at the head of the table in his special chair, while his guests sat in chairs
with hidden water spouts in the seats. During the meal, the host would
periodically turn on the water, laughing at his guests reactions. Since
guests could not rise while their host remained seated, they were given a
considerable soaking. The palace is also famous for its magnificent gardens,
museum, zoo, etc.

On Thursday evening I met with a cousin touring Europe. He had just traveled
through the area of Burgenland where our ancestors once lived. We exchanged
information, which helped me to make refinements for my first trip to the
place the following week.

Friday, May 23, 1997: The first lecture was the "Salzburg Festival", by
Gisela Prossnitz. Festival season for 1997 ran from July 26th to August
30th. The Salzburg Music Festival hall association was founded in 1917. The
festival has been an annual event since 1920 - except for the war years. In
1922 consideration was given to building a festival hall in the garden of
Hellbrunn (field trip to Hellbrunn mentioned above), but this never
materialized. To attend this world famous event now, music lovers head for
the Hofstallgasse, the street where the three main festival theaters are
located. One of the theaters uses part of the old "Small Winter Riding
School", called the "Felsenreitschule" which translates to rock horse-riding
school, because it was built into the side of a rocky mountain. This was
used in the making the movie "The Sound of Music". There the von Trapps were
portrayed as singing "Edelweis" in their last Austrian concert. Tickets for
the festival range in price from $320- to $400, and some buy tickets years in
advance. Two sponsors for the 1997 festival, Nestles and Audi, reportedly
paid 122 million Austrian Shillings for the privilege.

The second lecture was entitled "Max Reinhardt - A Magician of Theatre".
Max Reinhardt was the oldest of seven children born to Wilhelm and Rosa
Goldmann. He took acting lessons and started his acting career in Vienna in
1890 under the name of Reinhardt. Later his entire family assumed the
Reinhardt surname. In 1903 his name appeared for the first time as a
director. His acting brought him fame and he gave guest performances all
over Europe. The first performance of Reinhardt's ensemble in the USA was
in New York City in 1912. When Reinhardt first played in the USA it was in
pantomime. That was a good idea because using that technique it was not
necessary to know the language. In 1935 he made the film "A Midsummer
Night's Dream" with Mickey Rooney, Olivia de Haviland, and James Cagney ...
It was said that Reinhardt was a quiet person - a good listener. He was not
an intellectual, but he projected plays from the heart. He died in New York
in 1943. Our afternoon event was a guided tour of Salzburg's Museum Carolino
Augusteum, and our evening event was a Mozart concert at the Mirabell Palace.

Saturday, May 24, 1997: There was nothing scheduled for this morning, so my
wife and I took a "Gray Line" tour to a salt mine located south of Salzburg
across the border in Germany at Anif. Yes, the same Gray Line company that
operates in the USA. Their driver/guide picked us up at the hotel. We then
picked up a supreme court justice from Paris and his wife and three young
people from Australia. Our driver was very friendly, personable, and
knowledgeable. He was born in Salzburg and spoke English with a British
accent. During our four hour journey the driver told us among a number of
interesting things - that Salzburg had a population of 145,000 people and had
4 McDonald's restaurants. He pointed out mountains where red and white
marble is obtained. There were many dairy farms along our mountain country
ride. Most dairy farms are small, having only 15 to 20 cows each. Before we
reached the salt mines, we dropped off our three young folks for their
special trip to Hitler's Eagle's Nest at Berchtesgarden. They had to board a
special bus for the trip, because the road leading to the Eagle's Nest has a
22 to 26 percent grade. Upon our arrival at the 450 year old salt mine we
put on traditional miners' clothing over what we were wearing. We then
boarded the mines' miniature rail cars for a journey through long narrow
tunnels which brought us to large underground chambers. A fascinating part
of the tour was sliding down a 100 foot long wooden slide to the grottos - as
hundreds of miners had done before us for many, many years. Only then did we
realize why they had us wear the traditional miners' clothes. I had the
impression that salt was mined much like coal, i.e. digging the salt in
chunks from large deposits. However, the salt here is obtained from brine.
In one of the underground brine lakes, we took a barge across the lake to the
mines' museum which displayed historical items. This was a most educational
and fascinating experience. Later we had the opportunity to do some shopping
in Berchtesgarden. We stopped on the sidewalk, looking for a speciality
shop, but did not know where to inquire. While standing there, a couple
walked by speaking English and they gave us the information we needed. Ah!
English speaking people are found everywhere.

The Freilicht Museum (open air museum) is located southwest of Salzburg at
the city of Grossgmain, at the Austrian/German border. Gathered and
displayed there are over 50 original farm buildings from the province of
Salzburg, some dating back five hundred years, as well as farm houses,
craftsmen's cottages, a village school, blacksmith shops, mills, saw mills,
alpine pastures, chapels, old tractors, steam engines, equipment, etc. This
was truly a most educational and fascinating field tour. I was much
impressed with the wooden buildings, especially one very large barn, built
entirely without nails or metals fasteners. I asked our guide how these
buildings could endure. Didn't they have natural enemies like termites? I
was told that their cold winters eliminate termites from their area. I also
found the fence specialty shop most interesting. It had samples of the many
types of fencing used. One could spend a complete day there, engrossed in
the history of the Salzburg area. I hope to re-visit.

Saturday evening we had a farewell dinner at the Kasererhof Hotel. We paid
tribute to our lovely, charming coordinator Johanna Czihak. She went well
beyond the call of duty to assure our week in Salzburg was one that we will
never forget. This concludes the report about our two week Elderhostel
program. We learned much from our lecturers and from our fellow students. It
was an experience that I would not mind repeating. Elderhostel has made
learning fun.

The final chapter of my Austrian trip report, "Our Wonderful time in
Burgenland" will follow in a later Burgenland Bunch Newsletter. Comments
and/or suggestions are appreciated. <>

(From original material by Anna Odorfer, Translation by new member Bruce

In the year 1300, the sons of Nikolaus Gutkeled (Ladislaus and Johann)
divided the land that they jointly owned. Ladislaus received Mayad (St.
Margarethen), Scentgurg (St. Georgen), and Zazlup (now called Oslip) and
Midies (Mrbisch). After the property assessment registry of 1515, the place
came under the dominion of the City of Eisenstadt. The deaths and destruction
caused by the invading Ottoman Turks in 1529 and 1532 made new colonization
by settlers from Croatia necessary in order to re-populate the area.
(Certainly, though, migrant Croatians had already been settling in the area
since 1527.) The local princes and counts sought Croatians from Dalmatia to
farm the land and run the estates of the nobility. Naturally, these Croatians
did not own anything, but were subjects (Untertanen) of the princes. They
didn't own any land until land reforms centuries later. These Croatians
settled entire villages in Burgenland, in which even into modern times, they
kept their language, customs and old ways. Oslip is one of these villages.
Of the 36 vassal families in 1527, exactly 13 had Croatian names. In 1569,
the colonization was terminated: of 67 vassal families, 61 now had Croatian
names. The Protestant teachings of Martin Luther were rejected by these
Catholic Croatian families, as well as by the other Catholic Croatian
communities. In the early 17th century, the settlers in the dominions of
Eisenstadt suffered greatly in both the Bocskay (1605) and Bethlen (1622)
rebellions. The area was plundered and burned. In 1683 the Turks once again
destroyed the place. The church was burned down and countless inhabitants
either died or were kidnapped. There was yet more destruction and hardships
during the Kuruzzen War (1704-1709). Many inhabitants also died from the
Plague in 1713.

History of the Village Name-1300 possessio Zazlup, 1367 Zazlop, 1392 zu
Oslupp, 1409 castrum Zazlop, 1410 Uslupp, 1569 zu Oszlop, 1675 Oszlip, 1773
Oszlop/Oslop/Uslop. The official Hungarian name until 1921 was Oszlop. The
Croatian name since the 16th century was Uslop.

The Oldest Family Names (1569), Clemenschitsch, Bghhowitsch, Barlitsch,
Blschkhowitsch, Bropitsch, Waschitz, Matasowitsch, Mdwenitsch, etc. The
"itsch" means the name is Croatian. It means "son of" so Clemenschitsch
means "Son of Clemens."
Population Statistics:
Year Households Inhabitants Year Households
1515 19 ?- 1569
67 ?
1589 71 ?- 1715
61 ?
1785121 906- 1828139
19002471298- 1920255
19342901253- 1951313
19613251245- 1971356

The new increase in settlers who emigrated from Croatia as a result of the
Turkish Wars can be seen as follows:
Year German Households Croatian Households
151519 0
152723 13
1569 6 61
1589 6 91
167520 91

The Klemens Name
The name Klemensich is an authentic Croatian name. It is correctly written in
Croatian as "Klemensic." Over the course of many years, the name was
Germanized and one sees it spelled as Klemenschitz, Klemensich, Klemensitz,
Klemensits. The most common version was Klemensich. BRUCE KLEMENS

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