Archiver > BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER > 1999-08 > 0934725587

From: <>
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L] BB News No. 62A dtd 15 Aug 1999
Date: Sun, 15 Aug 1999 09:59:47 EDT

(issued biweekly by
Ausust 15, 1999

This second section of the 3 section newsletter is the eighth installment of
The Teklits Translation of "Volk an der Grenze ..." (People on the Border),
the history of the Croatians in Burgenland, written by Johann Dobrovich. We
are bringing you most of this book in serial form. Chapters 26 and 27 are
included in this issue. They cover the Croat settlement of the Districts of
Oberwart, Oberpullendorf and adjacent Hungary.

by Johann Dobrovich, translated by Frank Teklits
(with assistance of Albert and Inge Schuch)
printed via email by permission of the publishers

The District of Oberwart Chapter XXVI

The District of Oberwart is located south of the hills of Gns and Rechnitz,
between Lower Austria and Hungary. At the time of the immigration of the
Croats into this district, this part of the country belonged to the Domains
of Bernstein, Rotenturm, Schlaining, and Rechnitz. While the District of
Gssing experienced a more or less strong influx of Croatian settlers in all
of its parts, the western half of the Oberwart district in the Domain of
Bernstein remained free of Croatian settlers.

Ferdinand I gave the Domain of Schlaining and Rechnitz to Franz Batthyany in
1527.However, the legitimate heirs of these two properties were successful in
postponing delivery to Franz Batthyany until 1544. In this year, and with the
concurrence of Ferdinand I, the heirs of Andreas Baumkircher reached an
agreement with Franz Battyany and his wife, according to which, the Battyany
family bought half of the Domains of Schlaining and Rechnitz.Emperor
Maximilian II gave the second half of the Domain of Schlaining with all of
its accessories to Balthasar Battyany in 1574.

The Domain of Rechnitz in the paper " Zur Herrschaftsgeschichtes des
suedlichen Burgenlandes" (History of the Domains of Southern Burgenland",
J.K. Homma also touches on the colonization of the Croats in both of these
estates. Between 1538 and 1545 according to the register, Croats were settled
in the following villages of the Domain of Rechnitz: Drnbach (Vincet),
Zuberbach (Sabara), Schachendorf (Cajta), Schandorf (Cemba), Grossnahring
(Velika Narda), Kleinnahring (Mala Narda), Oberschilding (Gornji Catar), and
Unterschilding (Dolnji Catar).The last four of these villages are located in
Hungary. We must include Rechnitz (Rohunac), Markthodis (Novi Hodas), and
Althodis (Stari Hodas) among the Croatian settlements of this Domain.
Rechnitz may have experienced a Croatian migration between 1544 and 1554,
while Markthodis and Althodis were settled with Croats later. Althodis
appeared to be authentic for the first time in 1664. In 1697, Rechnitz had a
population of 662 Croatians in addition to 1572 Germans. The Walachs of
Althodis had a privileged position in the Domain of Rechnitz. Battyany
settled his serfs here from the environments of Kopreinitz (Koprivnica) right
after the conquest of West Slavonia by the Turks

The Domain of Rotenturm Rotenturm was in the possession of the Erdody family
from 1496 until 1557. Peter Erdody completed an agreement with Nicholas
Zrinyi on February 12, 1557, in which the Zrinyi Domains of Eberau,
Rotenturm, and Csatar in the County of Zala were transferred in exchange for
the Castle of Medvedgrad near Zagreb (Agram) and Rakonok (Rakovac) in the
Slavonian county of Kreuz (Krizevci). In 1612, the royal Curia decided that
the heirs of Zrinyi were obligated to transfer the Domains of Eberau and
Rotenturm and all accessories to the Erdody family in return for the castles
of Medvedgrad and Rakonok plus a payment of 12,000 florins redeeming an old

Erdody had already settled Croats in the Domains of Rotenturm and Eberau from
the area of Moslavina and several years later from the territories of
Roviste, Raca, and Kopreinitz.Nicholas Zrinyi, his successor, led his Croats
from Slavonia in 1557 to 1561 to the estates of Eberau, Rotenturm and Vep (in
Hungary). These were from the area of Kostajnica and Hrastovica. In addition,
Croats were settled in Spitzzicken (Hrvatski Cikljin), Eisenzicken,
Kleinzicken, Kotezicken, St. Martin im dem Wart, Neuhaus im dem Wart,
Mischendorf, Weiden bei Rechnitz (Bandol), Parapatitisch (Pereparic-Brig),
and Stefanshof (Humper). Spitzzicken had to have received new settlers before
1614, since the files of the county after 1614 contain no more "Ujszek" but
"Olah-Cziklin", which means Walachian-Zicken. Relatively speaking, many
Italians (Talliani) were found in this village among the new settlers in the
17th Century. Therefore the small town received the name of Olah-Cziklin
after them, since Italians and Roman Walachs are of same origin. Spitzzicken
had 10 households with the surname Talliani, 12 with Croatian names, and two
with other surnames in 1686. In 1697, the parish of St. Martin im dem Wart
was predominantly Croatian while the parish of Mischendorf was predominantly

The Domain of Schlaining
Within the Domain of Schlaining, Croats settled in Podler (Poljanci),
Mnchmeierhof (Marof), Altschlaining (Stari Solon), Podgoria (Podgorje), with
UnterPodgoria (Bosnjak-Brig), Rumpersdorf (Rupisce), Allersdorf
(Kljucarevac), Allersgraben-Rauhriegel (Sirokani), Miedlingsdorf (Milistrof),
Neumarkt im Tauchental (Ketel), Kleinpetersdorf (Mali Petrstof), and
Hannersdorf (Sampovar). We already noticed in Chapter XXI, "Der letzte
Einwanderung der Kroaten" (The Last Immigration of the Croatians) that the
Croats in the Domain of Schlaining, with the exception of those in Neumarkt
im Tauchental, Kleinpetersdorf, and Hannersdorf, are also called Walachs.
Among the Croats of Drnbach, the author found a verbal tradition according
to which the Walachs of Schlaining were to have come around 100 years later
than the ancestors of the Croatians of Drnbach, Zuberbach, Schachendorf, and
Schandorf. As the Walachs are understood to be descendents of slavicized
Romanic herdsmen who belonged to the Orthodox Church, and fought against the
Christian Western Civilization with the Turks, and as the ancestors of the
Schlaining Walachs always were Catholics and fought against the Crescent, it
is time to put this fact into a proper perspective.The question why the
Batthyany family settled these Croats here in the 17th century is necessary
to be answered, and the events in the first half of the 17th Century provide
a response. The Haiduckenoberst Gregor Nemethy destroyed almost all villages
in the Battyany Domain in 1605, because Franz Battyany who served under King
Rudolph II sided with the Emperor in the Turkish War. The devastation of his
land and the political events of that time forced Battyany to later side with
Bethlen Gabor. After the withdrawal of Bethlen Gabor from West Hungary, the
Imperial military leader Collato and Nicholas Esterhazy conquered Gns,
Rechnitz, and Krmend in 1621. Soon thereafter the Styrian farmers devastated
9 villages in the Domain of Schlaining, and 7 in Rechnitz. Therefore, the
Battyany family was now interested in the acquisition of new settlers and
workers for these destroyed villages. They succeeded in converting Adam
Battyany who served as a Cavalry General in the 30 Years War and sided with
the Emperor. The following villages are not listed in the Urbare of the
Domains of Schlaining and Rechnitz of 1544: Mnchmeierhof, Podler,
Allersgraben-Rauhriegel, Weiden bei Rechnitz, with Parapatitisch and
Stefanshof, and Podgoria with Bosnjak-Berg. We can assume that Croats founded
these places. According to the often-quoted treatise of Dr. Breu the
following villages were once totally or partly Croatian:Kleinpetersdorf. 17
families lived in Kleinpetersdorf in 1720, and 14 of them had Croatian
surnames. Kleinzicken had 9 families with Croatian surnames, one family with
a Hungarian name and one with a German name.3. Virtually only Croatian
surnames were represented in Kotezicken around 17004. Mischendorf. In 1697
Gregor Bratey, a Styrian by birth, who could have been Slovenian as well, was
the priest here. However, the Croats did not understand him. The teacher was
named John Stubitz. From 1715 until 1723, a third of the community had
Croatian names. Flurnamen (names for a certain part of the land belonging to
a village) from this time are Cikarnin, Cila, Krajcici, Med Vodami, Na
Veliki, Sinoska, Polig Njega, and Velika Sinoska.5. Neuhaus (Krobotsdorf) was
a Croatian place according to canonical inspection of 1698 and 15 Croat and 2
German families lived here in 1720. 6. In the history of the Lutheran parish
in Grosspetersdorf written by John Schmidt, we read on page 151: "At the
Synod in Buek (Wichs) in 1661, the people of Hannersdorf demanded that a
Croatian sermon be held each month as it seems that Hannersdorf still had a
partial Croatian population at that time. The Synod gave the request no
consideration and the inhabitants of Sziget im dem Wart were denied
permission for their minister Adam Bokany to hold regular Croatian religious
services in Hannersdorf."60 years later (in 1720) in Hannersdorf there were
19 families with Croatian surnames, 21 with German names, and 4 with
Hungarian names. A fifth of the Flurnamen are still Croatian today. Two
different dialects were spoken in the village according to Mr. Karner.7.
Altschlaining had 8 Germans and 6 Walachs with Sessionalisten (full farmers),
and 4 Sllner (inhabitants owning no portion of land) in 1719. Three of the
Sllner had German names and only one had a Croatian name. The Germans had a
village judge, and the Croats had a vice-judge. The Flurnamen Draga Ograd and
Lipa are reminders of the former Croats of this locale.8. The Croats were in
the minority in Eisenzicken in 1698.9. Approximately half of the population
in St. Martin im dem Wart was Croatian in 1720. 10. The Croats were a
minority in Rechnitz (known as Deutschmarkt, and Ungarmarkt at that time)
where they were a 1/3rd of the population in 1717. The Croats had their own
priest from 1660 until 1740. The Flurnamen Dolnji, Jedankertsch, Knaseno,
Nimsko Polje, Paraga, Pesceno, Pod Trnjem, Pod Glavicami, Ripisce, Stubjak,
etc. speak for the fact that to a large extent, the Croats there were
farmers. In 1697, the Croatian priest was Matthew Frankovich, and the
schoolmaster was John Baritz.11. Markthodis was a community with mixed
inhabitants in the 17th century, with the Germans being the predominant
majority, while the Croats constituted a strong minority. Among other things,
the Croatian Flurnamen of Palinka, Pescenica, Za Kapelom acknowledge this
even to today. 12. The priest in Neumarkt im Tauchental in 1697 was
"principaliter Chroatica ac deinde Germanica" (spoke Croatian principally and
also German). A priest named George Radosticz, who was a Croatian, could not
preach well in German. Some Croatian names from Neumarkt from 1692 are
Subasics, Jagodics, Bunschiz, Csacsinovics, and Horvath.Poschendorf (Bozok)
which was beyond the Hungarian border had a Croatian majority in the 16th
century. Franz Kurelac had accumulated 13 Croat folksongs here in 1847, which
is a confirmation of Sangesfreudigkeit (the popularity of singing folk songs)
by the youth there. The Croats were a third of the inhabitants in Szerdahely
in 1720, and a fourth of the population in Welem (Velemba). The Croat
minority was negligible in Zachenbach (Cak).

The District of Oberpullendorf and the Adjacent Parts of Hungary Chapter

>From the Landsee mountain range, the small Hungarian lowlands stretch towards
the last outlet in the hunchbacked hills. denburg borders to the north of
this hilly region, and the hills of Gns are to the south, and the District
of Oberpullendorf is located in this expanse. If we include an approximate
20-km wide strip (of land) with this district in neighboring Hungary, we have
the area where the largest portion of the Croats settled after the siege of
Gns. We can cite around 40 villages in the Domain that admitted the fleeing
Croats at that time because this region suffered the most during the siege of
Gns. Therefore there was an urgent need for people who would bring new life
to the burned down and partially deserted villages. Croats were settled in
the following domains:

The Domain of Lockenhaus
It is known that the Kanizsay family settled the first Croats who immigrated
into this domain. However since the last Kanizsay had already died in 1532,
prior to the siege of Gns and before 1532, this family had settled their
subjects onto their estates from Bosnia and the surroundings of the Croatian
Castles of Velike and Stenicnjak.In addition to the other villages, Nikitsch
(Filez), Unterpullendorf (Dolnja Pulja), and Drfel (Drfelj) belonged to this
Domain. Nikitsch is the largest Croat community in mid Burgenland, and it was
a German community at the time of the settlement of the Croats. The gardens
lying behind the Earl's mill in the east, which are still called Nimsko Selo
(German Village) today, are reminders of this. Germans may still have lived
in Nikitsch in 1586. Franz Nadasdy writes as follows to Gregor Stansics, his
friend and champion of the Lutheran Faith, on December 6 of this year: "I
need a third minister for Nikitsch, he should be a Croat or a German."Since
only inhabitants with Hungarian surnames paid the Weinzehent (1/10th tax of
the years wine production) in Unterpullendorf in 1557, we must assume that
Unterpullendorf was a Hungarian village in earlier times, and that Croats
first settled here after 1557.Hungarians may still have dwelt in
Unterpullendorf in 1646 because the Visitation (Canonical Inspection) of this
year says: "The people of Unterpullendorf asked for a Hungarian clergyman
who should speak two languages."Of Drfel, where in 1661 many families
carried the same names, the Visitation says: "Hic parochiani omnes
Catholici et Croatae" (Here the members of the parish are all Croats, and
everyone of them is Catholic)Three large Flurstcke (pieces of village land)
still have Croatian names today: Rawnica, Krasica and Sina-Feld, while Kogel,
Weingebirg and Anserswald are German.

The Domain of Gns
At the time of the settlement of the Croats, this Domain was the property of
Nicholas Jurischitz, the heroic defender of Gns for 15 years. He died in
1544. One may confidently assume that as the Commander in Chief of the
Croatian Imperial Army, he brought settlers out of the endangered areas and
into his devastated villages. The number of Croats settled in Grosswarasdorf
(Veliki Boristof) and Frankenau (Frakanava) must not have been very large. To
be precise, the Urbars of this Domain from 1569 shows that among the farmers
in Grosswarasdorf in addition to 32 German families there were only 26
Croatian (families), and among the Kleinhuslern (a person who does not own a
sessio) besides 13 German families, there were 14 Croatian (families). At the
same time in Frankenau, 20 Croats and 19 Germans were shown among the
farmers, and 7 Germans and only 2 Croatian family names amid the
Kleinhuslern. New Croat settlers had to have come later since they only
achieved a majority in these places after 1569. The Croatian Language Island
of Temeton (Temerje) in Hungary that belonged to this Domain had 52 Croatian
surnames among 68 owners of whole sessio's in 1569. 42 of its 54 new settlers
had Croatian names, and of 12 listed small farmers, 6 had Croatian surnames.
100 out of the 136 households had Croatian surnames.

The Domain of Klostermarienberg
This Domain belonging to Cistercians was initially granted to Baron Nicholas
Jurischitz on February 2, 1533, but their possession was returned after his
death. Klostermarienberg belonged to the Nadasdy family from January 24, 1568
until April 30, 1672. The domain contains Kloster (Klostr), Mannersdorf
(Malistrof), Strebersdorf, Kleinwarasdorf (Mali Boristof), Kroatisch Minihof
(Mjenovo), Prssing (Prisika), Siegersdorf (Zidan), Bleigraben (Plajgor),
Unterloisdorf (Podrlostrof), Oberloisdorf (Nadrlostrof), and Karl.After the
siege of Gns, all villages of the Domain received Croat settlers except
Oberloisdorf, Strebersdorf, and Karl. Kleinwarasdorf, Kroatisch Minihof,
Prssing, Siegersdorf, and Bleigraben are still purely Croatian today.
Unterloisdorf had a Croatian majority in 1675 and 1676. In 1622, Croatian
surnames were predominant in Mannersdorf, and in 1678, the minister in
Mannersdorf was under the administration of the Trausdorf Croats along with
the subsidiaries of Unterloisdorf and Klostermarienberg. The schoolteacher of
Mannersdorf who in addition also taught the children of the subsidiaries was
a Croat from Klostermarienberg. In 1608, 75% of the population of
Klostermarienberg had Croatian surnames. We are not wrong in assuming, that
Andrew Mihalevic, the Deputy Abbot of the Cistercians, included Croat
settlers in the villages of the Abbey from 1547 until 1555. In the list of
inhabitants of Kroatisch Minihof from 1622 appeared a Sllner (an inhabitant
owning no land) named George Zrin, whose surname alludes to the Castle of
Zrin situated by the river Una in the possession of the Zrinyi family.

The Domain of Landsee - Lackenbach
At the time of the immigration of the Croats, the following properties were
given to this Domain: Earl Ulrich Von Grafeneck, the owner's son, sold the
Domain to Baron Sigismond Von Weisspriach in 1506, and after his death his
widow was the owner until 1523. Landsee was notorious at this time for being
a robber's nest. She looted villages in northern and central Burgenland with
her servants, and after her arrest in 1523, Hans Von Weisspriach, her son,
was the owner of the Domain up to 1548. It can be safely asserted that Croats
had settled in the villages of Unterfrauenhaid (Svetica), Lackendorf
(Lakindrof), St. Martin (Sveti Martin), and Horitschon (Horicon). Lackenbach
(Lakimpuh) was also allowed to receive Croat settlers during the same period
of time.After the death of the Hans Von Weisspriach, Ernst, Christopher, and
Andrew Teufel were the owners of this Domain until 1553. The latter two sold
the Castle of Landsee along with its villages to Nicholas Olah, the Prince
Primate of Hungary, who owned Landsee and Lackenbach until 1561. Since
Kaiserdorf (Kalistrof) and Weingraben (Bajngrob) were founded in 1558, we can
assert that Nicholas Olah, the Archbishop of Gran, settled the villages with
Croats. Both villages are new Croatian establishments.Kaisersdorf had 51
Croat, 23 German and 8 Hungarian households in 1640, while Weingraben had 62
Croat, 3 German and 1 Hungarian households. In 1627 Kroatisch Geresdorf
(Geristof) also belonged to this Domain. Bidermann reports that "a small
village with Chrabathen (Croatians)" existed in 1534 close to the Styrian
border between Blumau and Steinbach. One must accept that the "small village
with Croatians" was soon deserted because the Urbar of Lockenhaus from 1597
and the Urbar of Landsee of 1627 list villages existing only today in the
mentioned region. Several people can be found in Neutal even today with
Croatian surnames. Unterfrauenhaid and Lackendorf were newly founded entirely
by Croatians; this comes unmistakably out of the Urbar of Landsee of 1627 and
the Visitation of 1674. Of the 42 people mentioned in Lackendorf in 1627, 38
were Croatians and only 4 were Germans. Of the 36 mentioned in
Unterfrauenhaid, only 1 was German. The Visitation of 1674 writes of
Lackendorf: "Hic parochiani sunt meri Croatae, omnes Catholici " (Here the
members of the parish are purely Croats, and all of them are Catholic.) In
1674, a Croatian priest from Unterpullendorf was serving in Unterfrauenhaid
that had a teacher who was born in this village and who also was a Croat. In
1627 within the village of St. Martin, more than half of the owners of
sessiones had Croatian names, while the farmers had almost all-German names.
In 1674 St. Martin had a priest that came from Trausdorf, and a Croat teacher
that was from Pama. In 1627, a strong third of all owners of sessiones in
Lackenbach had Croatian names, and the Flurnamen of Selica, Tutka, and
Kreutschitz still point today to an extinct Croatian nationality. Horitschon
had a Croatian minority for a long time, and in 1627, 14 of the 38 sessio's
had Croatian names, and of the 16 Hofstttlern (one who own a house and land,
but the size of the land is less than an "Achtel"), only 2 had Croatian
family names. Several of the Flurnamen are reminders of the former Croats of
this place. Only Kaiserdorf, Weingraben, and Kroatisch Geresdorf are Croatian
today of the 10 aforementioned villages of this Domain.

The Domain of Nebersdorf
The villages of Nebersdorf (Susevo), Grossmutschen (Mucindorf), Kleinmutschen
(Pervane), and the youngest village of the district, Langental (Longitolj),
belonged to this Domain. Nebersdorf was in the possession of the Hungarian
Magnate Niczky family from 1340 or 1348 until 1944, while Gross and
Kleinmutschen belonged to the Hungarian Aristocrat Sennyey.According to Dr.
E. Moor, the Croats in Nebersdorf took over a Hungarian village. Dr. Moor
claims that Grossmutschen was also a Hungarian village like Nebersdorf before
the settlement by the Croats. In 1557, John Kovacsi and Benedict Tornazczi
paid the Weinzehent (a 10th of the years wine production) in Grossmutschen,
where Croats were already living in 1558, and who were named Blasius Markovic
(Markoyth), Benedict Barilic (Barylyth) and Phillip Tonkovic (Thonkoyth). In
the past century a great number of gypsies were in Langental that earned
their livelihood by being musicians, who constituted almost half of the
population after the First World War.

The Domain of Kobersdorf
Microfilmed data was taken from the Landesarchives (Provincial Archives of
Burgenland), Esterhazy Archives Budapest, Repository 10, Bundle A, Number 2.
1585: The division of the Domain of Kobersdorf between the daughters Margaret
and Anna of John Choron occurred in this year. The inhabitants of Chorondorf
(Tschurndorf) were: Nicole Walatych, Bartholomew Hasz, Peter Jarychowyth,
Bartholomew Wagher, Mark Bonyth, Andrew Mendesyth, Paul Popowycz, John
Byskowycz, Michael Kranchyth, Martin Rybaryth, Andrew Maryessowyth, Matthew
Syranowyth, Stephen Popowyth, Gregory Swychyth, Peter Bonyth, Stephan
Mariasowyth, George Radanowyth, Martin Wypawcyz, Matthew Ghrwbycz, Stephan
Kranchyth, George Rebachyth, Thomas Maryassowyth, John Byztanyth, Mathew
Kolryth, Michael Czwythowyth, MichaelMaryassowyth, and Michael Syranowyth.
Among the 27 subjects were 25 Croats and 2 Germans. There were 19 German
families in contrast to 12 Croatian families in Lindgraben, and all of the
other villages in the domain of Kobersdorf are German. The next Urbar of the
domain of Kobersdorf is from the year 1702. Within the ethnic structure of
the domain at this time were the German villages of Markt Kobersdorf,
Weppersdorf, Kalkgruben, Oberpetersdorf (which had a Croatian family)
Lindgraben (with a Croat farmer's family), Neudorf, Stoob (with two Croat
farmer's families), while Tschurndorf was a mixed-language municipality. Nine
of the 21 owners of Sessionalisten (full farmers) listed were Croatian, and
they were George Kaneschitz, Hans Kaneschitz, Michael Horvath, George
Weleschitz, Matthew Weleschitz, Laurence Mojmositz, Michael Karoschitz,
Andrew Weleschitz, and Michael Kerbaschitz. Hans Von Weisspraich was the
owner of this Domain from 1523, and his son-in-law, Hans Choron from April
20, 1563 until 1585. In 1581, the subjects of the Domain of Kobersdorf
complained to Archduke Ernst of Lower Austria that Hans Choron expelled
Germans from their houses and farms, and settled Croats and Hungarians. Hans
Choron was the Stadthauptmann (Town Captain) and Obersgespann (nominal head)
of the county of denburg from 1571 until 1584. He founded Tschundorf, and as
was already said, settled Croats in this village. The Catholic Priest
Ambosius Turczicz worked in this Domain, who attended the ecclesiastical
Synod in Szombathely in 1579 with George Draskovich, the Bishop of Gyor
(to be continued in newsletter 63A; this newsletter continues as no. 62B)

This thread: