BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L ArchivesArchiver > BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER > 2000-02 > 0950625035
Subject: [BURGENLAND-NEWSLETTER-L] BB News No. 74A dtd 15 Feb 2000
Date: Tue, 15 Feb 2000 09:30:35 EST
THE BURGENLAND BUNCH NEWS -No. 74A
DEDICATED TO AUSTRIAN-HUNGARIAN BURGENLAND FAMILY HISTORY
(issued biweekly by
February 15, 2000
"Lorenz Schoenbacher -The First Burgenland Immigrant to America?"
This second section of the 3 section newsletter contains an article
concerning the individual who could well be the first Burgenland immigrant to
America. Prior to this, the first immigrant of whom we have some proof is a
man named Grabenhofer from Unterschützen who came to America in 1845.He is
mentioned in the book "Die Amerika-Wanderung der Burgenländer" by Dr. Walter
When John Shinpaugh first told us that his ancestor came to America as a
Hessian mercenary, we assumed he was mistaken in attributing Burgenland
provenence. When he mentioned Neutal (now Bezirk Oberpullendorf) as a birth
place, our interests were aroused. What follows is a wonderful tale and a
marvelous piece of genealogical research. It has been translated into German
by Albert Schuch and has been published in Austria. Dr. Dujmovits, president
of the Burgenländische Gemeinschaft),read Schuch's translation and mentioned
it in the most recent edition of his bi-monthly newsletter. He called the
results of this research "sensational", included a summary, and feels that
the publishing of this article in Austria was the most "spectacular"
Burgenland Bunch effort to date.(Numbers in parens in the following refer to
footnotes-some parts of the legal and civil documents have been shortened
[snip]from the original.)
HUNGARIAN, HESSIAN, AMERICAN
By John Shinpaugh
Most of the Hessians who arrived in America in 1776 to fight for Great
Britain were trained soldiers and natives of the countries, which sent them.
Later recruits were largely untrained, and some of them were foreigners (1).
Of the almost 30,000 Hessians who came to America's shores, an estimated
6,000 deserted or were discharged and were assimilated into the colonial
communities (2). This is the story of one of those foreigners who deserted
from the Hessians, fought for his new country, and became an American.
Today, that Hessian's descendents are found all across America.
According to the HETRINA (3), Private Lorenz Schoenbacher (4) of the Rall
Regiment was born prior to 21 July 1752 in Neutal, Hungary. Records of the
Catholic Parish of Markt St. Martin, Austria, which includes Neutal, have
provided more definitive information on Lorenz and the Schoenbacher family
line. Lorenz's parents were Michael Schinpacher and Elizabeth Kollman; they
were married in 1734 in Neutal (5):"On the 28th of February (1734) the youth
Michael Schenbecher, son of Philippus Schenbacher and Susanne, was married to
his betrothed Elisabetha, the daughter of Andreas Kollman and Maria.
Witnesses were Laurentius Handler and Mathias Raiter."
Lorenz's mother, Elizabeth, had been baptized in 1711 in Neutal (6):"19
October (1711)Baptized: Elisabeth. Parents: Andreas Kollman and wife Maria of
Neuthall. Sponsors: Franciscus Dischler and Catharina Fusein, both of St.
Michael and Elizabeth probably had brothers and sisters and also other
children besides Lorenz, but they have not yet been identified. Lorenz was
born and baptized in 1752 (7):
"On the 21st day (of July, 1752)Baptized: Laurentius. Parents: Michael
Schinpacher and his wife Elisabetha. Sponsors: Joannes Schiffer and
Lorenz's father and grandfathers were probably farmers. Other aspects of
their lives are not known. Today, Neutal, Lorenz's birthplace, is in the
Austrian state or province of Burgenland. This Austrian province has been
described as "...a conglomerate of cultures, language, geological formations,
alien plants and rare creatures." (8) It was probably even more diverse and
unusual in Lorenz's day. Burgenland is a "...fertile belt of vineyards and
rich agricultural land ...," (9) sometimes called ". . .the vegetable garden
of Vienna. . ." (10) The people in Burgenland today are small farmers,
foresters, vintners and craftsmen (11); they probably were in Lorenz's day as
well. The major difference between Burgenland now and then is probably
political; it was a Hungarian province from 1648 to 1921, a period of almost
300 years, while it has been an Austrian province only since 1921 (12).
The exact circumstances, which led to Lorenz's becoming a Hessian, are not
known. However, there are three possibilities which would explain Lorenz's
recruitment by officers from Hessen-Cassel (13). Of these, one of the first
two is believed by the author to be the most likely reason for Lorenz being a
Hessian. First, some of the Hessians were civilian volunteers who were
looking for a better life and thought America would provide it. Lorenz may
have been one of those seeking a better life, particularly considering the
conditions in Hungary under which he had previously lived. On the other
hand, there were foreigners either employed or travelling in one of the
German principalities or states who were forcibly recruited and shipped to
America in spite of their protests. As a Hungarian, Lorenz may have been
waylaid and compelled to join up or he may have fallen under the influence of
the recruiter's generous supply of alcoholic beverages and promises of a
handsome bonus. Finally, there were military men who saw an opportunity for
adventure, glory, recognition, and advancement. Lorenz's rank and short
tenure as a Hessian on American soil strongly suggest that he was not a
soldier at heart, trained or otherwise.
Whatever the situation, which applied in Lorenz' case, he was probably
shipped from one of the Holland muster depots, perhaps Nymegen or
Schravendeel, in the spring of 1777. Subsequently, he was shown as an
addition on the Monatliche Listen for the Combined Regiment (which included
remnants of Rall's Regiment) in November of 1777 (14), while it was stationed
in the vicinity of Philadelphia. In June 1778, the British forces, including
the Combined Regiment, departed Philadelphia and returned to New York (15).
Then, in July 1778, the Rall Regiment was reestablished (16), and Lorenz was
one of its soldiers, serving in the Leib or Body Guard Company.
The Rall Grenardier Regiment was one of 13 units in the Hessian first
division which sailed for the American colonies in the spring of 1776 and
arrived at Staten Island in August 1776 (17). During its tour of duty in
America, the Rall Regiment participated in British campaigns in both the
northern and southern colonies. It operated in the north from August 1776 to
November 1778, first as a separate regiment until its defeat at Trenton, New
Jersey, on 26 December, 1776, and then as part of the Combined Regiment from
January 1777 to July 1778. During this time, the Rall Regiment participated
in battles at Long Island, White Plains, Fort Washington, Tenton, Brandywine,
Germantown, Philadelphia, and Monmouth (18). From July to November 1778, the
Rall Regiment was garrisoned in New York and did not face the Americans in
battle. During this period, the regiment probably received replacements, and
the new soldiers underwent training in preparation for the next British
campaign. It was during this period that the British high command decided to
move against the southern colonies (19). The Rall Regiment was one of the
two Hessian and seven British regiments (a force totaling 3,657 officers and
men) selected to open the new initiative (20).
In November, 1778, these units sailed in seven ships from New York harbor
under sealed orders; they arrived off Savannah, Georgia, in December, 1778
(21). While in the South, the Rall Regiment saw action at Savannah,
Charleston, Eutaw Springs and Stono Ferry (22). The Regiment returned to New
York in November 1782 and to Europe in 1783 (23), but without Lorenz
The British expedition landed and took Savannah on 29 December, 1778 (24).
Apparently, this was the only action that Lorenz saw. On 25 April, 1779,
while on sentry duty at an outpost on the Savannah River, Lorenz deserted
with full gear; his record indicated he was 5 feet 5 inches tall (25).
After leaving his unit, Lorenz probably went into South Carolina and
travelled generally in the direction of Charlotte, NC. His specific route,
destination and activities from April 1779 to April 1784 are not known.
Somewhere in his travels, however, his path crossed that of Thomas Sumter,
and he spent about 10 months in Sumter's State Troops.
>From June 1780 to January 1782, Thomas Sumter raised and led two groups of
volunteers in the fight against the British and the Tories in South Carolina.
From June 1780 to March 1781, he recruited and led a band of veterans and
volunteer militia (26). However, Sumter recognized several problems with the
militia, i.e., 60 days service, no training, no discipline, etc. As a
result, in March 1781, Brigadier General Sumter decided to raise several
regiments of State Troops, each soldier to serve 10 months. Sumter's plan to
obtain recruits included issuing clothing, shoes and a blanket; furnishing
horse, equipment and weapons; paying each soldier one slave; giving each one
a share of plunder; and giving the soldier's family a half bushel of salt
(27). Apparently, many of Sumter's senior officers from the militia agreed
with his proposals for State Troops and joined him. The officers began
quickly to recruit young men for their regiments. Lt Colonel Wade Hampton
recruited in North Carolina (28).
One of the men who joined Lt Col Hampton's regiment was named Lawrence
Shinpecker, which was obviously the English spelling of his name, Lorenz
Schoenbacher or Schinpacher. The actual start or end of his service is not
known, but Lawrence was in Sumter's State Troops at sometime between April
1781 and January 1782 (29). In any case, during this period Sumter's State
Troops made several attacks on the British and Loyalists. The battles of the
State Troops in central SC against the British and Tories and their results
(snip)are outlined in the following:
Battles of Sumter's State Troops 1781 in South Carolina (30); date and
location; April, Ft Granby;May, Friday's Ferry; May 11,Orangeburg; July
17,Quimby; July 25,Georgetown; Sept 8, Eutaw Springs*-1800 British and an
American force of 2400 men. Tories lost 139 killed, 375 wounded and 8
missing. British lost 85 killed, 351 wounded, and 430 missing, of which 400
* In this battle, due to Sumter's physical and mental conditions caused by an
unhealed wound and exhaustion, the State Troops were under the command of
Colonel William Henderson. The opposing British force included Lawrence's
old Hessian unit, the Rall Regiment.
Whether Lawrence actually completed his obligation to Sumter's State Troops
is not known, but the State Troops were disbanded in January 1782.
Afterwards Lawrence probably returned to North Carolina where, for the next
two years, he probably worked as a farm laborer and saved his money for the
purpose of buying his own land. It was probably also during that two years
that he met his future wife. Where he worked and where he met his future
wife are yet to be determined. In any case, from 1784 on, several
significant events occurred in Lawrence's life. On April 10, 1784, he bought
200 acres of land which was located in North Carolina's Mecklenburg County,
southeast of Charlotte near the South Carolina state line (today his land
would be located in Union County) (31):
"State of North Carolina, Mecklenburg County. This Indenture made between
David Griffith and Hannah Griffith his wife of the county of Mecklenburg
above planter on the one part and Larence Shanepaker of the sd county planter
of the other part. (snip) ...in witness whereof we have hereunto fixed our
hands and seals this tenth of April Anno Domino 1784."
Another significant event in Lawrence's life at about the same time was his
taking a wife. Sometime before December, 1784, he met his bride-to-be, name
unknown since no marriage record has been discovered. She may have lived in
the vicinity of the land, which he had bought in southeastern Mecklenburg
County, or most likely he met her while he was a farm laborer. Regardless of
where they met, they were probably married by late 1784 or early 1785, and
Lawrence took her to live on his land in southeast Mecklenburg County.
Meanwhile, in South Carolina, the state government had voted compensation to
South Carolina patriots who served in the Revolutionary War. As a result, in
1784, South Carolina issued a stub indent in Lawrence's name in the amount of
94 pounds sterling for claims growing out of the Revolutionary War (32):
"No. 243 Book M -Issued the first October 1784 to Mr. Lawrence Shinpuker,
late Private in Burns Troop W Hamptons regiment and Sumters Brigade State
Troops for ninety four pounds Sterling being amount pay and bounty due him
for Services in that Troop together with Interest thereon from the first
April 1782 to date ...(snip.
In 1787, South Carolina surveyed 100 acres of land in Cheraws District (which
included the counties of Chesterfield, Darlington and Marlboro) and assigned
the land to Lawrence (33):
"South Carolina____I do hereby certify for Laurence Shinpiker a tract of land
containing one hundred acres (surveyed for him the 22nd Nov 1787) Situated in
the District of Cheraw on the Dead Pine Creek and East side of Lynches
In 1789, the land surveyed in 1787 was granted to Lawrence (34):
"State of South Carolina, To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting:
Know ye, That for and in consideration of Two pounds 6/8 sterling money, paid
by Lawrance Shinpicker into the treasury for the use of this State, WE HAVE
Lawrence and his wife were probably married by March 1785 and were living
together on the land in Mecklenburg County. In December 1785, Lawrence's
wife gave birth to their first child, a son whom Lawrence named Michael after
his own father (35). They were probably living in southeastern Mecklenburg
County at the time of Michael's birth. At some point in time, probably after
December 1785 and before December 1787, they decided to move. However, they
subsequently relocated to the Salisbury District, Montgomery County, NC,
where they bought land. Due to the loss of county court records by fire, the
date and location of their settling in Montgomery County can not be
established. By 1790, Lawrence and wife had a daughter, name unknown; it is
not known in what year she was born, but it was probably about 1788.
According to the U.S. census of 1790 for Montgomery County, North Carolina,
Lawrence's household consisted of one white male age 16 or older, one white
male age under 16, and two white females (36). Probably in late 1790, a
second son, named Henry, was born.
In the meantime, Lawrence learned that he had been granted land by the state
of SC. He decided to claim that land. Sometime after the census of 1790 was
taken and probably before the year 1792, Lawrence sold his land in Montgomery
County. He and his wife packed their few household goods, loaded them into a
wagon with their three children and moved to Cheraw in Chesterfield County,
Lawrence's wife gave birth to their third son in 1792, probably after they
moved to Chesterfield County, SC. They named him John. Prior to August 1794,
Lawrence and his wife decided to sell their 200 acres of land in Mecklenburg
County, NC, which he had purchased in 1784. By early August 1794, they had
returned to NC, and on the 7th of that month in Mecklenburg County, they
completed the sale of their Mecklenburg County land to Conrad Plyler (37).
(Here we learn for the first time that Lawrence's wife's name was Rosanna.)
"This Indenture made between Lawrance Shenpaghel and Rosanna Shenpaghel his
wife of the State of South Carolina Chesterfield County Cheraws District
(snip)...seventh day of August A. D. 1794. Witnesses: Lawrance Shenpaghel,
Darling Belk, Rosanna Shenpaghel" (Illegible)
It is not clear as to when and how long Lawrence and Rosanna lived in any one
location. In August 1794, they claimed to be living in Chesterfield County,
SC. In 1800, they were living again in Montgomery County, NC. It would seem
likely that after selling Lawrence's land in Mecklenburg County, NC, they
returned to Chesterfield County. Sometime before 1800, Lawrence and Rosanna
probably sold their land in Chesterfield County and moved their family to
Montgomery County. The loss of records for both Chesterfield County, SC and
Montgomery County, NC, precludes us from resolving the issues of when and
where Lawrence owned land in both counties. In 1798, a son, William, was
born, and in 1800 another son, named Joseph, was added to the family. The
1800 U.S. census of Montgomery County, North Carolina lists Lawrence
Shinpock, aged over 45, and family consisting of a wife, aged over 45; a
daughter, aged 10-16; three sons under 10; and two sons, aged 10-16 (38).
Between 1800 and 1810, two significant events affected the Shinpocks. The
order of those events is not known, but the worst was likely the death of
Lawrence. After the 1800 census, Lawrence's name appears in no other records
seen by the author. The obvious conclusion is that Lawrence died.
The other event of significance in the life of the Shinpock family, except
for son Michael and possibly the daughter who might have married in
Montgomery County prior to 1805, was their departure from North Carolina for
places west; first stop was Knox County, Tennessee. It is not known when
Lawrence sold his land in Montgomery County, NC, but the Shinpock family,
minus Lawrence, his son Michael and possibly the daughter, arrived in Knox
County in the year 1810, at the latest.
Lawrence's family, as we have seen, consisted of his wife, a daughter, and
five sons. The identity of his family members is based largely on two facts:
one, the Shinpock name, and two, the lack of any evidence of another Shinpock
living at the same time. Additionally, from later censuses in which the sons
are listed, their birth years were extrapolated to the dates presented above.
The following paragraphs present a brief summary on each member of
First, information on Lawrence's wife, Rosanna, is sketchy. Her given name
is known only from the 1794 record of land sale. Since the 1800 US census
gives her age as over 45, she was obviously born before 1755. After
Lawrence's death which occurred prior to November 1810 and possibly before
the Shinpock family arrived in Knox County, TN, Rosanna Shinpock married John
Cunningham on November 16, 1810 (39). Where Rosanna and John Cunningham
lived after their marriage is unknown, but it might have been in Knoxville.
Lawrence's daughter was born between 1785 and 1790, probably about 1787-88;
the US census of 1800 lists her age as 10-16 years. Unless she died at an
early age, between age 10 and 20 after 1800, she could have married in
Montgomery County, NC, prior to the rest of her family leaving for Tennessee.
Early records for Montgomery County were destroyed when at least two county
courthouses burned; therefore, a marriage in Montgomery County can be neither
confirmed nor denied. It is also possible that she accompanied her family to
Tennessee, and she could have died on the trip across the mountains.
Lawrence named his first son Michael, no doubt after his own father who was
named Michael. Michael was born on December 19, 1785, in Montgomery County,
North Carolina. He married Rosena Melchor on November 19, 1806, in Cabarrus
County, NC (40). Their children were: John, Moses, Elizabeth, Daniel F.,
Anna Margaret, Micha and Jacob L. Michael and Rosena died on October 26,
1850, and were buried in the Mount Pleasant Cemetary, Cabarrus County.
Michael's descendents spell their name Shimpock.
Lawrence's second son was Henry, who was born about 1790. Henry married
Elizabeth McDaniel on March 15, 1812, in Knox County, TN (41). They had two
children: Mary born in 1813 and Henry born in 1814. In September 1813, Henry
joined the Tennessee Militia and served during the War of 1812 under Captain
Stewart and General Jackson (42). He became ill and died in December 1814 at
Fort Montgomery, Alabama, where he was buried. Henry's widow, Elizabeth,
adopted a baby boy after in birth in 1818; he was named William (43). For
Henry's military service, Elizabeth received a pension from the US
Government. Henry's descendents spell their name Shinpaugh (44). The author
is descended from Henry's son, Henry.
John was Lawrence's third son; he was born about 1792. John married Mary
Crowder on January 10, 18ll, in Knox County, TN (45). He and his bride moved
to Alabama, living in Madison County and then Limestone County when it was
formed from Madison. When he purchased land in Limestone County in 1819,
John's brother William witnessed the transaction (46). He served in the War
of 1812 from February 20 to March 23, 1814, for which service he received a
bounty land warrant for 160 acres (47). He and Mary had at least nine
children: Sarah H., Caroline, John C., Thomas G., William H., Mary E., Martha
A., Maria Lucy Bell, and Olivia. In 1850 he moved to Mississippi and later
to Arkansas. He died in White County, AR, on November 9, 1865. His
descendents are named Shinpock or Shinpoch.
The fourth son of Lawrence and Rosanna was William; he was born about 1798 in
North Carolina. He married Martha Carroll on December 24, 1826, in Hardeman
County, TN (48). He was in Fayette County, TN, in 1830; Carroll County,
Mississippi, in 1840; and Union Parish, Louisana, in 1850 and 1860. His
children were: Joseph, Egbert, William, Sarah Ann, Robert, Allen, Mathi
Easter, and John D. He died between 1860 and 1870. His descendents are
Lawrence's last son was named Joseph; he was born in 1800. He lived in
Alabama from 1815 to at least 1827; he was in Fayette County, TN, in 1830 and
1840. He died on January 31, 1841, and was buried in Fayette County. His
will listed his wife Amelia Jane, brother William, and nephew Joseph
Shinpock, Jr (49). He apparently had no children.
1. Atwood, R., "The Hessians: Mercenaries from Hessen-Kassel in the American
Revolution," New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980; page 207.
2. Kipping, E., "The Hessian View of America, 1776-1783," Monmouth Beach, NJ:
Philip Freneau Press, 1971; pp 1 and 9.
3. Auerbach, I. and O. Froelich, "Hessiche Truppen in Amerikanischen
Unabhangigkeitskrieg," Band III, Marburg/Lahn: Staatsarchiv, 1972-1976.
(Commonly called HETRINA.)
4. This spelling is from the HETRINA, Band III. Many different spellings
have been found in various records as summarized below (these will
subsequently be found in the narrative above):
NAME SOURCE DATE OF SOURCE
Shenbacher Marriage record, Austria Feb, 1734
Schinpacher Baptismal record, Austria Jul, 1752
Schoenbacher HETRINA Nov, 1777
Shanepaker Land deed, Mecklenburg Co,NC Apr, 1784
Shinpuker Stub Indents, SC Oct, 1784
Schinback Est.papers Mecklenburg Co,NC Dec, 1787
Shinpicker Land grant, SC Apr, 1789
Shinpock US Census, NC 1790
Shenpaghel Land deed, Mecklenburg Co,NC Aug, 1794
Shinpock US Census, NC 1800
5. Markt St. Martin, Matriken Bd. II, Trauungsbuch, o.s., 1734.
6. Op. Cit., 1711.
7. Op. Cit., 1752.
8. Musulin, S., "Austria and the Austrians," New York: Praeger Publishers,
1971; page 212.
9. Fodor's "Austria 1980," New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1980; page
10. Op. Cit., page 123.
11. Op. Cit., page 125.
13. Atwood, Op. Cit., page 210.
14. Best. 12, blaue Nr. 8834/37 desgl. Angellelly, Staatsarchiv Marburg/Lahn.
15. Chidsey, D. B., "The War in the South," New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.,
1971; page 57.
16. Atwood, Op. Cit., page 262.
17. Katcher, P.R.N., "Encyclopedia of British, Provincial, and Germany Army
Units, 1775-1783," Harrisburg, PA: The Stackpole Company, 1973; page 122.
18. Atwood, Op. Cit., page 263.
19. Lowell, E.J., "The Hessians and Other German Auxilliaries of Great
Britain in the Revolutionary War," Williamstown, Mass: Corner House
Publishers, 1970; page 239.
21. Lowell, Op. Cit., pages 239-240.
22. Atwood, Op. Cit., page 263.
23. Katcher, Op. Cit., page 122.
24. Stember, S., "The Bicentennial Guide to the American Revolution, Volume
III, The War in the South," New York: E. P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1974;
25. Best. 12, Op. Cit.
26. Bass, R.D., "Gamecock, The Life and Campaigns of General Thomas Sumter,"
New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1961; page 53.
27. Op. Cit., pages 144-145.
28. Op. Cit., page 146.
29. According to Bass, Sumter's senior officers began their recruitment
efforts in late March/early April, 1781. A 10 month period of service would
therefore be up in January/ February 1782.
30. The data in this table were compiled from numerous sources, including
Bass (see above), Boatner, and Pancake.
31. Mecklenburg County, NC, Record of Deeds, Vol. 12, pp 270-271, 10 April
1784, David D. and Hannah Griffith to Larence Shanepaker.
32. South Carolina Original Stub Entry, Book M, Nr 243, 1 October 1784,
Payment to Laurence Shinpuker for Service in Sumpter's Brigade.
33. South Carolina State Plats, Vol. 24, page 276, 28 March 1789, Survey of
Land for Laurence Shinpiker.
34. South Carolina State Grants, Vol. 76, page 232, 28 March 1789, Grant of
Land to Lawrence Shinpicker.
35. U.S. Census of North Carolina, 1850: birthplace of Michael Shinpock is
listed as Montgomery County, NC.
36. First Census of the United States: North Carolina, page 166.
37. Mecklenburg County, NC, Record of Deeds, Vol. 14, page 421, 7 August
1794, Lawrance and Rosanna Shenpaghel to Coonrod Plyler.
38. U.S. Census of North Carolina, 1800, page 522.
39. Knox County, Tennessee, Marriage Records.
40. Cabarrus County, North Carolina, Marriage Records.
41. National Archives, Old War Widows File 15025, 1812. This file consists
of over 100 pages.
43. According to Goodspeed's "History of Tennessee," page 1048, William
Shinpaugh was born on 16 July 1818 in Roane County, TN. His parents are
given as Henry and Elizabeth Shinpaugh (Shinpock). However, Henry died in
44. The transition of the name Shinpock to Shinpaugh is reflected in various
records of the 1800's as shown below:
NAME SPELLED SOURCE DATE
Shimpaugh US Census, Roane Co., TN 1830
Shinpock US Census, Knox Co., TN 1840
Shinpock US Census, Knox Co., TN 1850
Shinpock Pension Records, National Archives 1856
Shinpouch Pension Records, National Archives 1856
Shinpaugh Pension Records, National Archives 1857
Shinpock Pension Records, National Archives 1858
Shinpaugh Pension Records, National Archives 1859
Shinpaugh US Census, Knox Co., TN 1860
Shinpaugh US Census, Knox Co., TN 1870
Shinpaugh Pension Records, National Archives 1878
45. Knox County, Tennessee, Marriage Records.
46. Limestone County, AL, Sundry Deeds, Book 1, page 33, 8 December 1819,
James A. Crowder to John Shinpock.
47. Bounty Land Warrant 23175, The National Archives, Washington, D.C.
48. Hardeman County, Tennessee, Marriage Records.
49. Fayette County, TN, Court Minutes, May 1841, Book A, pages 68-69, Will of
Joseph Shinpock, dated 14 January 1837.
End of Article (Newsletter continues as no. 74B)