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From: "William C. Bell" <>
Subject: [CREEK-SOUTHEAST-L] Indian chiefs
Date: Tue, 16 Mar 1999 15:20:11 +-500

Hi List,

Noticed several on the list mentioned Indian Chiefs. So hope the following is of some interest, has a lot of references. (There could be some slight errors due to scanning but should be none of any great significance).
This is part 1 of 2.

William C. Bell


Marie Bankhead Owen, Editor
Emmett Kilpatrick, Co-Editor
Published by the State Department of Archives and History
Vol. 13, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, 1951

In 1844, Thomas L. McKenney, late of the Indian Department at Washington and James Hall, Esq., of Cincinnati, student of Indian character and life, prepared and published three volumes entitled "History of the Indian Tribes of North America," the work being published by Daniel Rice and James G. Clark, of Philadelphia, Pa. This set of Indian books is a very rare item in the collector's field but is of fundamental importance in a study of the life of the leaders among the Indians of North America. There are many sketches and portraits in the publication of Alabama Indians and some of the sketches presented herewith are attributed to that work as one of the sources of information.

Another source of Indian biography used here was the two volume book, "Handbook of American Indians," issued by the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, in 1907. Numerous Alabama historians have also written much on the subject. The sketches presented here unless otherwise indicated are taken from the four volume work of the late Thomas M. Owen, entitled, "History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography". Dr. Owen, with that meticulous integrity characteristic of the real historian and with boundless zeal for research work, cited the sources of his information at the end of each sketch. The student of Alabama history will observe that many of these Indian leaders were possessed of qualities of mind and character of the highest order, comparable to that of any other race. Others, whether by instinct or necessity, exhibited less admirable qualities at crucial moments, yet each and every one played his part in the early history of this!
State and should not be overlooked or forgotten. They are here presented in alphabetical order rather than in the order of their importance or the time of their appearance upon the scene in our history and the history of their own people. M.B.O.

Aleck, Captain, or Captain Elcik, Creek Chief.--The few general facts of the early life oú the Lower Creek chief, as given by himself, are that he had lived so long among the white people that he looked upon himself as much a white man as a red man; that the white people had given him the name he bore, Captain Aleck, and that he had always lived in friendship with the English.

Apart from these statements, an evidence of Captain Aleck's association with white people is the letter A, the first letter of Aleck, which he adopted as his mark in signing his name. That Captain Aleck had always been a true friend of the English is borne out by all the recorded facts extant of his history. He showed his loyalty by his actions. The first notice of him is in 1754, when all things pointed to rupture between England and France and between England and Spain. On November 11, accompanied by a few followers, he called on Governor John Reynolds in council in Savannah and informed him that the French had persuaded some of the Upper Creeks to come to Mobile and receive presents, and the Spaniards had done likewise in persuading some of the Lower Creeks to come to Pensacola for the same purpose. That he had not yet learned the objects of the French and Spaniards in these matters, but if he succeeded in doing so, he would inform the Governor. Captain Aleck's talk agreed !
with the reports that had already come to the ears of the Governor that the French and Spaniards were very busy in endeavoring to win the Creeks over to their respective interests. Some presents were the next day presented to Captain Aleck and his followers, with which they were well pleased.

On May 11, 1757, Captain Aleck and his brother Will, accompanied by twelve men and women, had a talk with Governor Ellis in the council chamber in Savannah. After a conversation on several topics, the Governor told Captain Aleck that the Creeks should join no party to the prejudice of the English, to which Captain Aleck gave his full assent. The Governor then expatiated largely upon the cruelties of the French in all their proceedings, and instanced a recent attempt by them to induce the Choctaws and Cherokees to exterminate the Chickasaws, which attempt proceeded solely from this desire to get possession of the lands of the Chickasaws. That the Great King expected the Creeks to join the English and assist them in driving back the French, who were daily encroaching on the Indians' lands, and who, if they should grow stranger, would treat the Creeks as they had lately tried to treat the Chickasaws. On the contrary, the English had honestly paid for the lands which they got from!
the Indians. But the policy of the French was to become masters of the Indians' lands, after murdering the Indian inhabitants; and their present designs were either to cut the Indians off entirely or to reduce them, their wives and children, to a state of slavers. The English, on the other hand, were a people fond of trade and sent their ships laden with merchandise to all parts of the world; that wherever they went, their study was to make people free and happy; and when they talked, their tongues and hearts went fast together; that the Great King showed the love he bore his red children by presents and by frequent and friendly talks.

The French too gave presents, but these presents, like the rum drank by the Indians, however sweet it might be at first, always made them sick in the end. After other remarks, by no means complimentary to the French, the Governor closed his talk by saying that every Indian who went to war against the French, should receive for every French scalp a reward equal in value to eight pounds of deer skins; and for a French prisoner a reward equal in value to sixteen pounds of deer skins, which he would much rather pay for than the scalps. For, although the English were known to be warriors, it was likewise known that they took no pleasure in shedding human blood. Captain Aleck in reply said that the Governor's talk was very true and just, that he had come down to hear a good talk and not for presents, and so was not disappointed; that his brother would set off to the nation in a few days, and there was a beloved day approaching and his brother there would declare this talk before all!
the people, and no one could say that he had never heard it. Captain Aleck then applied for a grant of a piece of land or small island on which he was settled, but as he could not satisfactorily give its location, the consideration of his request was postponed, but he was told that if the land was vacant, or if the proprietor of it would accept other land in its place, he should have a grant for it. This matter settled, the Governor invited Captain Aleck and his brother to dine with him.

Nothing further is on record about Captain Aleck until January, 1763, when he sought the good offices of Governor James Wright to recover his wife, who had been stolen from him by some Yuchee Indians and carried into the province of South Carolina. Governor Wright wrote to Governor Boone of South Carolina desiring him to use every effort to securer the return of Captain Aleck's wife.

Captain Aleck was present as Speaker of the Upper and the Lower Creeks at the Great Congress in Augusta in November, 1763. On one occasion during the six days in which the Congress was in session he spoke of the frequent stealing of horses by white people and Indians and proposed that some means should be adopted to prevent it for the future. These words speak high for Captain Aleck's desire for peace and order on the frontier, the crime of horse stealing being promotive of frequent murders and killings by both white people and Indians, often culminating in wars. Captain Aleck also attended the Pensacola Congress in May, 1765. During its six days sessions he made several appropriate talks and was one of the signers of the treaty. A part of Captain Stuart's talk on May 30 to one of Captain Aleck's is here given as it bears witness to the moral worth of the Muscogee chief: "I am glad to find you in the same good disposition in which I left you at Augusta, of which you have given!
so many proofs, during the course of your life; the white people must always put a value on your friendship, as the Governor and I ever will. We are very sensible of the effect and influence your talks have had on your nation and we desire you may continue them.' All the facts preserved in historic records, relative to Captain Aleck are favorable to his character as a man and a leader of his people.

The last-historical notice of Captain Aleck occurs January 10, 1768. There having been a disagreement between the Georgians and the Creeks with regard to the boundary line which separated the two, on that day, Governor Wright and Captain Aleck, representing the Creek Confederacy, came to an agreement that the dividing line should "commence at the Ogeechee river where the lower trading path leading from Mount Pleasant on Savannah river to the Lower Creek Nation crosses the said river Ogeechee, and thence in a straight line cross the country to that part of the river Alatamaha opposite to the entrance or mouth of a certain Creek on the south side of the said river Alatamaha commonly called Fen-hollow or Turkey Creek, and that the line should be thence continued from the mouth of the said Creek across the Country and in a southwest course to the St. Mary's river, so as to reach it as far up as the tide flows or swells."

Bibliography.--The Colonial Records of Georgia, vol. vii, pp. 33, 34, 566-569; Ibid. vol. IX, pp. 17, 18; The Colonial State of North Carolina, vol. XI, pp. 179, 184, 185, 188-190, 194, 203; Mississippi y agent of the Lower Creeks in 1793 and 1794 and was one of the interpreters at the treaty of Coleraine in 1796. He died at an advanced age on Flint River, Georgia, the year not known. But little is known of the early life of Timpoochee Barnard. His mother carefully taught him to speak her native Yuchee dialect, while no doubt he learned much English from his father. Following the custom of his people, he also mastered the Muscogee dialect, as a knowledge of it was indispensable in the public and private life of the Creek people. Timpoochee Barnard first became prominent in General Floyd's campaign against the Creek Indians in January, 1814. He was commissioned major, and commanded one hundred Yuchee warriors. In the latter part of the night of January 27, the Creeks, in large !
force, made a furious attack on General Floyd's troops, who were encamped in Calebee swamp. Captain John Broadnax was in command of a detachment, stationed at some distance from the main army. The Creeks, discovering the isolation of the detachment, assailed it, surrounded it, and cut it off from the other troops. Major Barnard, taking in the situation, made a desperate onset on the Creeks with his Yuchee warriors, drove them back and so opened a way for Broadnax's men to join the main army. This heroic exploit gave Major Barnard a great name with the Americans. He continued to serve in the army with distinction until the close of the war. He was twice wounded. General Jackson, many years afterwards paid this high tribute to Major Barnard in a conversation with his son William: "A braver man than your father never lived." Major Barnard was present at the treaty of Fort Jackson, August 9, 1814, signing the treaty as "Captain of the Uchees." While no doubt a man of military inst!
incts, Major Barnard was domestic in his habits and devotedly atta
them girls, and they all had the reputation of being the handsomest children in the Creek Nation. His son, William, received a fair education, and in after years served in the Seminole war of 1835 under Paddy Carr. The military career of Major Barnard did not close with the Creek War. In 1818, in command of a band of Yuchce warriors, he served under his old commanded, General Jackson, through the Seminole War of that year. He distinguished himself in the fight of April 12, 1818, at Econaffinnah or Natural Bridge, where was rescued Mrs. Stuart, the only survivor of the massacre of Lieutenant Scott's party on Apalachicola river, of November 30, 1817. Major Barnard,was opposed to the treaty of the Indian Springs, and was one of the delegation that went to Washington to protest against the validity of that treaty. After this event, he continued to reside his remaining years at his home near Fort Mitchell, blessed with all the wealth that was desirable, and noted for his public spi!
rit, his hospitality and benevolence. Thus passed away a genuine man, that was an honor to the Indian race.

Bibliography.--McKenny and Hall's Indian Tribes of North America (1854), vol. II, pp. 25-28; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900) p. 585; White's Historical Collections of Georgia (1855) p. 166; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 54, 109; Handbook of the American Indians (1810), Part 2, p. 752.

Jim Boy, or Tustenaggee Emathla, was born about 1790 in the Creek Nation, the birth-place not known. Tustenaggee is the Creek term for "warrior;" Emathla is a war title, corresponding nearly to "disciplinarian." Nothing is known of Jim Boy's life prior to the outbreak of the Creek War of 1813, where Pickett calls him High Head Jim. He was chief of the Atossees, and commanded the hostile Creeks at the battle of Burnt Corn, fought March 27, 1813. It is not known in what other battles he was engaged during the war. After its close, he settled near Polecat Spring, and there built a little town called Thlopthlcco. In 181S he served under General McIntosh against the Seminoles ill Florida. During the Creek troubles of 1836, he attached himself to the friendly party. At the close of these troubles he was solicited by General Jessup to raise warriors for service against the Seminoles in Florida. He and Paddy Carr accordingly raised nine hundred and fifty warriors and with them reached!
the seat of war in September. Here the Creeks were organized into a regiment war in September. Here the Creeks were organized into a regiment and placed under the command of Major David Moniac. Jim Boy was with his regiment in two battles and in a number of skirmishes in the Seminole war. The battles were the second battle of Wahoo Swamp, fought in November, 1836, and the battle of Lake Monroe, fought February 8, 1837. The Creeks fought courageously in both these engagements.

A Creek Chief born in the present Macon County. A participant at Fort Mims; served in the war of 1813-14; in the uprising of 1836, and in the Florida War of 1837. He died in 1841 in the Western Creek Nation.

On his return from Florida, he found that his family had been removed west in the emigration of the Creeks, and that all his property in the nation had been destroyed. He had joined the army in Florida under a promise of the commending general that his family and property should be cared for, and that he should be remunerated for any loss he might sustain during his absence. This promise was not kept. But all this was a slight trouble compared to the death of four, out of his nine children, who were of the two hundred and thirty-six Creeks that were lost in the sinking of the emigration steamboat, Mommouth.

Jim Boy's home in the Creek Nation west, was near Wetumpka, where he died in 1851. The name of his wife was Nihethoye. Rev. William Jim Boy, a well known Methodist minister in the Creek nation, is a grandson.

Jim Boy is described as a remarkably handsome man, full six feet high, perfectly formed and with a commanding air. The late Rev. John Brown of Daleville, Mississippi, who served in the Seminole War, states that on one occasion, at General Jessup's headquarters, he saw Jim Boy, clad in his full war dress, engaged in conversation with the general; that he was struck with Jim Boy's appearance, and with the fact that he was by far a finer looking man than General Jessup.

References--McKenney and Hall's Indian Tribes of North America (1842), vol. iii, 95, 96; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 521-524; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, pp. 91, 97, 98; Halbert and Ball's Creek War, pp. 125-132, 300-301; Drake's Indians, fifteenth edition, pp. 474, 476, 477, 479.

Big Warrior, Creek chief, was born probably at Tuckabatchee and about 1760. No facts have been preserved of his early life. His marriage to the deserted or discarded wife of Efa Hadjo, must have taken place about 1785, as Tuckenea, his oldest son by her, was a man of affairs in 1810. Big Warrior was not of full Muscogee blood, but was a descendant of a Piankashaw Indian, and he made no little boast of this northern Indian blood. His first recorded appearance in public life was at the treaty of Coleraine in June, 1796; his next appearance at the treaty of Fort Wilkinson in June, 1802. Thirteen days after this treaty, but on the treaty ground, Efa Hadjo, the speaker and first chief of the nation, abdicated his office to Micco Hopoie, and the place of the national council was transformed from Tuckabatchee to the Hickory Ground.

>From the lack of records it cannot be stated in what year Big Warrior became Speaker of the Upper Creeks. It may have been in 1812, on the death of Efa Hadjo. On his attaining this office it seems that Tuckabatchee again became the national capital. In 1810, or thereabouts, a Scotchman from Pensacola came to Tuckabatchee and spent some time with Big Warrior, with whom he had many talks through a negro interpreter belonging to the Tuckabatchee chief. The topics of these conversations were never revealed, except that during his visit the Scotch man asked William Weatherford, who was then in Tuckabatchee, how many warriors the Creek nation could raise. Soon after the departure of the Scotchman, Tuskenea, Big Warrior's son, with a party went north and visited the Shawnees and some other tribes. He returned in the summer of 1811. In the fall of the year, Tecumseh at the head of a band of Shawnees came to Tuckabatchee. It is possible that the visit of the Scotchman to Tuckabat chee!
, and the visit of Tuskenea to the north, may have had some connection with the coming of Tecumseh. Soon after the Shawnees arrived at Tuckabatchee, the notable council took place, about which much has been written, some fact and some fiction. During his stay in the Creek nation, Tecumseh made several efforts to detach Big Warrior from his friendly attitude towards the United States.

Some of Big Warriors contemporaries have represented him at the time of the outbreak of the Creek War, and even during its continuance, as being at heart unfriendly to the American government, and only adhered to it from a fear of the consequences, should he take the opposite side. This view was adopted by Pickett, the historian, but it does not seem to be borne out by a close study of Big Warrior's actions during those troubled times. The peace party among the Upper Creeks were greatly in the minority.

There were twenty-nine Upper Creek towns and villages that belonged to the war party and only five to the peace party. Notwithstanding this preponderating majority. Big Warrior, who, at this time was certainly the Speaker of the Upper Creeks, did all in his power to induce the hostile chiefs to come over to the side of the Federal Government. He sent a special messenger to the Alabamas, who were the most implacably hostile of all the Upper Creeks. But all of Big Warrior's efforts towards the pacification of the hostile element were of no avail from their point of view, since he had been mainly instrumental in the execution of Little Warrior and his party for the murders committed by them in February, 1813, near the mouth of Ohio. For using,in this matter his executive authority, which was directed agreeably to the requirements of the treaty of Coleraine, Big Warrior, along with six other chiefs, was formally condemned to death by a council of the war party. By midsummer of 181!
3 this party had become so dangerous, that Big Warrior built for himself and fol lowers a fort at Tuckabatchee, which he filled with supplies. Here he was besieged a number of days by the Red Sticks until two hundred warriors from Coweta came to his relief, and carried Big Warrior and all his people safe to Coweta, which became the great place of refuge for the friendly Creeks. Big Warrior from the very beginning of the Creek troubles until his arrival at Coweta certain!y conducted himself as a brave and honorable chief. Without fear or favor he cooperated in the execution of Little Warrior's party, and did his whole duty in attempting to pacify the large hostile element of his people. Lastly, we see him with his few faithful followers in their fort at Tuckabatchee besieged by their enraged countrymen, bravely holding the fort for weeks, with the full knowledge that should the fort fall no mercy would be extended to its inmates. A consideration of these facts show that histori!
ans have been unjust to the memory of Big Warrior. While he contin
far as the records show, he does not figure in any of the battles. Perhaps he was serving his people better by remaining with them at Coweta. Pickett represents him as being present at Weatherford's surrender.

Four months later, as Speaker of the Upper Creeks, he was one of the signers at Fort Jackson. Before signing the treaty Big Warrior made an address to General Jackson, in which, in the name cf the Creek Nation, he tendered donations of land to him, to Colonel Hawkins, the Creek agent, and to George Mayfield and Alexander Cornells, Creek interpreters. Big Warrior was also a signer of the treaties of the Creek Agency, January 22, 1818, and of the treaty of Indian Spring, January 8, 1821.

Big Warrior died in 1824 in Washington while in attendance there with a delegation of his people. General Woodward describes Big Warrior as the largest man that he had ever seen among the Creeks and as spotted as a leopard. The name of only two of his children, both sons, Tuskenea and Yargee, have been preserved. As an incident in the career of Big Warrior, may be cited,--his conversation in 1822, with the Missionary, Rev. Lee Compere, in which, in giving the traditional history of the Creeks, he stated that in remote times they "had even whipped the Indians then living in the territory of South Carolina and wrested much of their country from them." Modern philological research has confirmed this tradition of Big Warrior as being true history; for the local names of the parts of South Carolina, traversed by the Del Pardo expedition of 1567, and recorded by its historians are significant in the Muscogee tongue, showing a Muscogee occupancy of these parts. Hence, apart from bein!
g a wise Creek counsellor, Big Warrior should be accorded some reputation as a man thoroughly and patriotically conversant with the traditional history of his people.

Bibliography.--Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 80, 514, 518, 520, 593, 599, 618, 621; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 36, 37, 44, 94, 9~, 96, 110, 116; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. I, pp. 837-845, 848, 849, 851; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. 1, pp. 755> 762; American State Papers, Military Affairs, vol. I, p. 699; Brewer's Alabama (----), p. 17, footnote.

Died, on the 8th inst. at Washington City, Big Warrior, principal chief of the Creek nation. He was a man of great talents as a savage warrior--a person of immense bodily powers, and it has been said of him that he was endowed with a mind as colossal as his body. Although he possessed not the advantages of education, or even of understanding but little of the English language, yet he has done much towards improving the condition of his people, and had great influence over them. During the late Indian wars, he had been uniformly friendly to the whites and fought for them in many battles.--(From Nile's Register, March 19, 1825. )

Colbert, William, Chickasaw Indian chief, was a native Alabamian and Revolutionary soldier, serving under Gen. Arthur St. Clair and leading his tribe against the hostile Indians, who operated with the British. In the War of 1812, he again led his tribe against the Creeks, pursuing them to Apalachicola, Fla., killing a number and bringing eighty-five prisoners back to Montgomery. He was, in 1816, the guest of the U. S. government at Washington, going there at the head of a Chickasaw delegation and being called "General" Colbert. He settled at Colbert's Ferry, on the Tennessee River, and the county laid off there was named in his honor. His sons were George, who owned the Ferry; Levi, who settled on Bear Creek, and James, who farmed in Colbert County. They went to the Indian Territory with the remnant of their tribe. One Herbert Colbert, afterwards, was the representative of the Chickasaw nation in congress.

Efa Hadjo, Efau Haujo, or Mad Dog, Creek Chief.--It would be an interesting fact, if it could be proven, that the Effa Adio who signed the treaty made by the English and Creeks in June, 1765, at Pensacola, was the same man as Efa Hadjo, who was in after times so long the speaker of the Creek Nation. Be the fact as it may, the first notice of Efa Hadjo or Mad Dog in April 1792, shows him a partisan of the adventurer Bowles. Many of the ignorant Creeks at that time supposed that Bowles represented the English government, and that England, France and Spain were opposed to the Americans. A year later, however, in April, 1793 found Efa Hadjo Hadjo a decided friend of the Americans. Alexander Cornell in a letter to James Seagrove, the Creek agent, in April, 1893, writes: "If every man should exert himself as well as the Mad Dog, and the headmen of the Upper towns, and Mr. Weatherford, we should have an everlasting peace with our brothers of the United States." From the lack of recor!
ds, it cannot be stated when Efa Hadjo became the speaker of the Creek Nation. He did not hold this office at the treaty of Coleraine in June, 1796, though he.was one of the signers of the treaty. Fusatchee Mico, the Whitebird King of the Hickory Ground, was the speaker at Coleraine. Efa Hadjo was the speaker of the Creek Nation at the treaty of Fort Wilkinson in 1802. He also at the same time was speaker of the Upper Creeks, with Coweta Micco, as speaker of the Lower Creeks. His several talks at this treaty were all sensible and relevant to the subjects under consideration. Twelve days after the treaty Efa Hadjo abdicated his station as speaker and first chief of the nation to Hopoie Micco an~ transferred the seat of the National Councils from Tuckabatchee to the Hickory Ground. He was at this time, as he stated, "getting in age." The action of Efa Hadjo was either of short duration or was not accepted by the Nation, as can be seen from Colonel Hawkins' notice of the chief in!

"This (Tuckabatchee) is the residence of Efan Hanjo, one of the great medal chiefs, the speaker of the Nation at the National Council. He is one of the best informed men of the land, and faithful to his National engagements; He has five black slaves, and a stock of cattle and horses; but they are of little use to him; the ancient habits instilled in him by French and British agents, that red chiefs are to live on presents from their white friends, is so riveted that he claims it as a tribute due to him, and one that never must be dispensed with."

Efa Hadjo died in Tuckabatchee in 1812.

References.--American State Papers. Indian Affair.s, vol. 1, pp. 297, 367, 382, 383, 385, 390, 396, 424, 461, 670, 672-681, 840; Hawkins' Sketch of the Creek Country, p. 30.

Francis, Josiah, or Hillis Hadjo, Creek Chief, born probably about 1770, and in Autauga town, was the son of David Francis a white trader and silversmith, who lived many years in Autauga Town, and made silver ornaments and implements for the Indians. The name of his mother is not known, and apart from his father, the only other fact recorded as to his family relationship is that he was a half-brother of Sam Moniac. Hillis Hadjo, properly spelled Hilis Hadsho, is the name of an official of he Creek busk; "hilis," medicine, "hadsho," crazy. Some corrupt spellings of the name are Hidlis Hadjo, Hillishago, Hillishager, etc. In his youth Josiah Francis learned the silversmith trade of his father. The first recorded public fact of his life is being created a prophet, which was about the latter part of 1812. It took Sukaboo, the great Shawnee prophet, ten days' work to endow Francis with prophetic powers. When this was completed, Francis was considered the greatest prophet in the Cre!
ek Nation. He himself now assumed the role of prophet-maker. He made many prophets, among others, Jim Boy of Atossee. In June, 1813, just before the outbreak of the Creek War, General James Wilkinson of the United States Army, noted the presence of Francis, with a large number of followers, camped at or near the Holy Ground on the Alabama River, evidently making preparations for a war of destruction upon the white and the half-breed Indian settlements in South Alabama. For the purpose of procuring ammunition for the oncoming war, early in July, Josiah Francis, commanding the Alabama, Peter McQueen at the head of the Tallassee warriors, and Jim as principal-war chief, commanding the Atossees, with many packhorses took up the line of march from the Holy Ground for Pensacola. They were successful in attaining their object, and on their return march, while encamped on Burnt Corn Creek, they were attacked, on July 27, by a body of Americans, under Colonel James Coller, and there wa!
s fought what is known as the battle of Burnt Corn. The victory wa
prestige in their defeat, no doubt, prompted the Creeks to begin the war on a larger scale. About the middle of August a great Creek council was held at the Holy Ground. After much debate and deliberation, it was resolved by the council to divide the Creek farces into two divisions, and with each to make simultaneous attacks on Fort Mims and Fort Sinquefield. Hopie Tustenuggee commanded the larger division that was to assault Fort Mims, while Josiah Francis with one hundred and twenty-five warriors was to operate against Fort Sinquefield. On the night of August 30, Francis and his warriors camped in the Wolf's Den, a large deep ravine three miles east of Fort Madison. Thence, the next day, they moved northward and massacred twelve members of the James and Kimble families, living on Bassett's creek. The bodies of the dead were, the next day, brought to Fort Sinquefield for burial by a party sent out for that purpose. The day following, September 2, about eleven o'clock, a part !
of the people were out of the fort engaged in the burial, and a number of the women were at the spring, some engaged in washing, and others who had come to bring buckets of water back to their families in the fort. The time was propitious for Francis and his warriors, who were advancing in a stooping position to cut off the burial party and the women at the spring. The Creeks were discovered in time and all, with one exception, made their escape into the fort, upon which a furious attack was made. After two hours' fighting, Francis was repulsed with the loss of eleven warriors and many wounded. He then retreated across the Alabama River, where several of the wounded died. There is no record of Josiah Francis in other engagements of the Creek War. After the defeat at the Horseshoe, he and Nehemathla Micco placed their people on the Catoma, not far above the Federal crossing. But they remained there a very short time, for General Jackson writing from Fort Jackson on April 18, st!
ates "Hillishagee, their great prophet, has absconded." Francis an
Florida. Early in 1815 Colonel Edward Nichols negotiated a treaty with the fugitive Creeks and the Seminoles. This treaty was an offensive and defensive alliance between the English government and the Indians, and through it the Creeks in Florida were led to believe that they would secure the restitution of the lands ceded by the treaty of Fort Jackson. Early in the summer following Nichols sailed for London, taking with him Francis and other Indians, Creeks and Seminoles. Nichols hoped that his treaty would be ratified by the British Foreign Office, but it refused to receive him or even listen to his proposals. While Colonel Nichols' treaty was thus ignored by the English government, his friend Francis was treated with much distinction. He was created a colonel in the British army (colonial establishment), with a full uniform; was presented with a diamond-studded snuff box, a gold-mounted tomahawk, five hundred pounds in gold, and some jewels for his daughters. He was admitte!
d to an interview with the Prince Recent which is thus described by a London Journal: "The sound of trumpets announced the approach of the patriot Francis, who fought so gloriously in our cause in America during the late war. Being dressed in a most splendid suit of red and gold, and wearing a tomahawk set with gold gave him a highly imposing appearance." Francis and the other Indians were sent back to Florida in 1816, by the English government in a sloop of war. It would have been well for Francis had he been content with the honor and glory which he had now received from the English government and had made peace with the Americans. But the old war spirit was too strong and the close of 1817 found him inciting the refugee Creeks and the Seminoles to war. About this time, an American soldier, named Duncan McKrimmon, was captured by the Indians near Fowl Town. He was taken by his captors to Francis' town, delivered to the chief, who sentenced him to death by the torture, in ret!
aliation for the killing of four Indians by the Americans in their
attack on Fowl Town. But McKimmon's life was saved through the entreaties of Francis' daughter, Malee. (This name is incorrectly given in some books as Milly. Malee is the Indian imperfect articulation of Mary, there being no r in the Choctaw Muscogee dialects, l being used or substituted in its place.) In the following April, Francis and Nehemathla Micco were captured, and without the formality of a trial, General Jackson ordered both to be hanged. Nehemathla Micco was justly put to death on the charge of torturing his prisoner, Lieutenant Scott, to death. But it may be questioned whether Francis ought to have been executed on the two charges brought against him,-- complicity in the massacres during the Creek War, and for inciting the refugee Creeks to war. As to the first charge, Francis was no more guilty than other Creeks for massacres during the war and. whom Gen. Jackson did not punish. As to the other charges it may be said that he was not a party to the treaty of Fort !
Jackson, of August, 1814, a treaty not recognized by the Creeks in Florida. Hence from his point of view he had the right to renew or continue the struggle of the Creeks against the Americans in Florida. Francis is described by an officer of Jackson's army as "a handsome man, six feet high; would weigh one hundred and fifty pounds; of pleasing manners; conversed well in English and Spanish; humane in his disposition; by no means barbarous--withal a model chief." Accepting as true this favorable account of Francis' character, it may be inferred that, while he himself was adverse to needless barbarity in war, he was unable to control his warriors, as in the case of the Kimball-James Massacre and the killing of Mr. Philips at Fort Sinquefield. Francis was survived by his wife and several daughters. His wife was a halfblood, her name not recorded, and said to be a half-sister of William Weatherford. Of his daughters, the name of the youngest, Malee, incorrectly given by some as Mi!
lly, has been preserved, and ever will be remembered for the roman
story of this Alabama-born girl, her beauty, her accomplishments, her saving the life of McKrimmon, her grief over the execution of her father, her marriage to McKrimmon, her subsequent life,--all surpass in interest the somewhat apocryphal story of the Virginia-born Pocahontas.

References.--Meek's Romantic Passages in Southern History (1857), p. 271; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's edition, 1900), pp. 514, 515, 521, 544; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, 1857, pp. 43, 53, 97; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. i, pp. 850, 853; American State Papers, Military Affairs, vol. i, pp. 700, 745; Buell's History of Jackson (1904), vol. ii, pp. 122-125; Parton's Life of Jackson ( 1861), vol. ii, pp. 39S, 397, 415, 420, 431, 437, 455, 457; Halbert and Ball's Creek War (1895), pp. 184, 185, 197, 198; Handbook of American Indians (1911), Part i, pp. 549, 550; Claiborne's Mississippi (1800), p. 323.


We have already commented on the beautiful display of feminine loveliness in the character of Pocahontas; but that instance is not without a parallel. We quote the following incident from the Baltimore American:--

"The committee on Indian Affairs, in the late House of Representatives, reported a bill allowing a pension for life to Milly, an Indian woman, of the Creek tribe, daughter of the celebrated prophet and chief Francis, who was executed, by order of General Jackson, in the Seminole war of 1817-18. The subject was brought to the notice o~ the committee by the Secretary of War, in the instance of Lieut. Col. Hitchcock, who communicated the particulars of the incident upon which the recommendation of the favour of the government was founded.

"Milly, at the age of sixteen, when her nation was at war with the United States, and her father was one of the most decided and indefatigable enemies cf the white people, saved the life of an American citizen, who had been taken prisoner by her tribe. The captive was bound to a tree, and the savage warriors, With their rifles, were dancing around him, preparatory to putting him to death. The young Indian girl, filled with pity for the devoted prisoner, besought her father to spare him; but the chief declined to interfere, saying that the life of the prisoner was in the hands of his captors, whose right it was to put him to death. She then turned to the warriors, and implored them to forbear their deadly purpose. But she was repulsed; and one of them, much enraged, told her that he had lost two sisters in the war, and the prisoner must die. Her intercession, however, continued. She persevered in entreaties, and used all the arts of persuasion which her woman's nature suggested!
; and finally succeeded in saving his life, on condition that the young white man should adopt the Indian dress, and become one of the tribe.

"It appears from the information communicated by Col. Hitchcock, that sometime after this event the white man sought his benefactress in marriage, but she declined, and subsequently married one of her own people. Her husband is now dead. Her father was put to death in the war of 1817-18, and her mother and sister have since died. She is now friendless and poor, residing among her people in their new country, near the mouth of Verdigris river. She has three children (a boy and two girls), all too young to provide for themselves, and consequently dependent upon their mother for support.

The committee thought that the occasion presented by this case was a suitable one, not only to reward a meritorious act, but also to show the Indian tribes how mercy and humanity are appreciated by the government. The grant of a pension, with a clear exposition of the grounds of its allowance, would have a salutary influence, it was believed, upon savage customs in future. A bill was accordingly reported, to allow to Milly a pension of ninty-six dollars per annum, or eight dollars per month, for life."

1) From "History of the Indian Tribes of North America" by McKenney & Hall, pp. 193-194.

Gun Merchant, Creek chief.--This chief of Okchaiyi first came into prominence after the massacre of the traders on March 14, 1760. Twelve days after this affair, while staying at Muklasa, he, in the name of the headmen of the Upper Creeks and some refugee traders present, sent a talk to Governor Ellis in which he expressed the hope that the Governor would not think that this affair was a concerted plot of the nation in general, that if it had been a concerted affair, not a single trader would have ever got to his own country; that the traders present knew what uneasiness it gave the Indians; and he wished the Governor to believe that the Indians had no malice in their hearts, and their only wish was that a good understanding and friendship might be renewed with the white people. The deeds were done by a few young men and the headmen were not privy to it, and he hoped that traders would be allowed to return to the Nation.

The Governor sent a talk in reply in which he stated the Creeks must inflict capital punishment on the murderers, and that the trade would be renewed when it was safe to do so, but that first the Creeks in every town must select some powerful person to take charge of the traders and their goods; otherwise no traders would venture their persons and goods among them; and the traders must pay a yearly consideration to these guardians. Some weeks after the Governor sent another talk into the Nation. Gun Merchant was at Okfusky when the talk came there. He commented on it largely as a good talk and that they ought to quench the fire while in their power to do so. At his suggestion, the Indians went forth, gathered up the bones of the traders, wrapped them in white deer skins and buried them. Another evidence of Gun Merchant's fair dealing occurred early in 1761. The store of a trader named Henderson among the Upper Creeks was robbed. This, coming to the ears of Gun Merchant, he int!
erposed to prevent further mischief, and at the same time took two traders and their goods under his protection. Governor Wright was so appreciative of this action that he sent a special talk to Gun Merchant. But the obligations of the traders and their guardians were not altogether well observed. Gun Merchant in a talk of April 30, which he sent to Governor Wright, says: "There was a Man appointed to look after the Traders in each town--some performed it, others did not, and that the said Headmen were to be paid for their Trouble; this Talk was given out last year by Joseph Wright from Governor Ellis; but we see no Rewards for it yet; there are others that go Guards to the Pack Horses and get nothing for this Trouble, which make the Young People indifferent of going down."

Gun Merchant was one of the four great medal chiefs of the Upper Creeks created at the Congress in Pensacola in June, 1765. After this there is no further record relating to his career.

References.--The Colonial Records of Georgia, vol. viii, pp. 32?, 348, 421, 423, 514, 543, 544; Mississippi Provincial Archives, vol 1, p. 210.

Isaacs, Captain of Tourcoula, Coosada chief, born conjecturally about 1765. He received his English name from an Indian trader, who died at an advanced age in Lincoln county, Tennessee. No facts are preserved of his life, until 1792, when he was one of the Creek chiefs that were in the habit of making raids upon the Cumberland settlers in Tennessee. On August 21, 1793, he and his party murdered a Mrs. Baker, a widow, and all her family except a daughter, named Elizabeth. They brought her to Coosada, where she was forced to be an eye-witness of the dance around the scalps of her family. But she was soon fortunate in finding a friend in the noted trader, Charles Weatherford, who lived on the east side of the Alabama River, opposite Coosada. He ransomed her, placed her in charge of his wife, where she remained until restored to her friends. After the treaty of Coleraine, made in 1796, Captain Issacs became a friend to the United States. He was the only chief at the great Council !
held at Tuckabatchee in the fall of 1811, that refused to take the talk of Tecumseh. General Woodward very erroneously states that Captain Issacs went north with Tecumseh and that on his way back home, he was associated with Little Warrior in the murders committed in February, 1813, near the mouth of the Ohio. Official records show that Captain Issacs never went north with Tecumseh, nor afterwards to Tecumseh, and that he had nothing to do with those murders, living in all those times at his home in the Nation. Furthermore, from his persistent loyalty to the whites. he was one of the seven prominent chiefs whose deaths had been decreed by the hostile faction in the early summer of 1813. Captain Issacs met his fate in June, himself, a nephew and three of his warriors, being killed at the same time by the Red Sticks. His wife was a daughter of General McGillivray, but apart from this, there is no further record of his family.

References.--Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 425, 512, 519; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. i, p. 487; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 36, 37.

Ledagi.--An Upper Creek Chief who was later associated with the Trading Post at Jacksonville, the County seat of Benton, now Calhoun County. This man was a signer of the 1839 Cession Treaty and was made an allotment under that agreement. A marker in the town square at Jacksonville is to hi.s memory.

A Creek Chief who resided in the present Calhoun County, Alabama region. A commemorative marker to this man is at Jacksonville.

Little Prince, or Tustenuggee Hopqui, Creek chief.--History and tradition are both utterly silent as to the early life of this chief, who lived at Broken Arrow and was for many years speaker of the Lower Creeks. The first notice of him is in 1780. In the spring or summer of this year, the Indian Agent, John Tate, who was stationed at the Hickory Ground, raised a large number of warriors, for the British service from all the Upper Creek towns, except from the Tallassees and the Natchez, and with them marched to the Creek towns on the Chattahoochee. Here he was reinforced by a band of Lower Creeks under Little Prince. The combined Indian forces, all under the command of Tate, began their march to Augusta to the aid of Colonel Thomas Brown, in command of that post. Near the head springs of Upatoy creek, Tate became deranged, was brought back to Coweta, where he died and was buried. After his death, all the Upper Creeks returned except the Tuckabachees under Efa Tustenuggee, or Da!
vy Cornells. He and Little Prince resumed the march with their warriors, numbering two hundred and fifty, arrived at Augusta and were there when the place was besieged by Colonel Elijah Clark. In the fighting that ensued, the Creeks lost seventy men,--a loss showing the high grade of their fighting qualities. After the abandonment of the siege and the retreat of the Americans, Colonel Brown first hung some of the most prominent Americans and then delivered the remainder into the hands of the Indians, who, in revenge for their slain warriors, put them to the most torturing and protracted deaths, by cuts, blows, scalpings and burnings. The memories of Colonels Brown and Grierson, the commanding officers of the post, justly deserve to be held in eternal opprobrium for these enormous atrocities. Those familiar with Indian character and history know that the chief has but little real control over his warriors. What he accomplishes is mainly by dint of persuasion. How much Little Pr!
ince favored or disapproved of the actions of his warriors at Augu
charitable conjecture in regard to his colleague, Efa Tustenuggee, who is described by General Woodward as being 'the most hostile and bitter enemy the white people ever had."

So far as known, the Augusta campaign was the only military service ever performed by Little Prince. He was one of the signers of the treaty of Coleraine in 1796. He ever after continued friendly to the American government. He was too old for military service during the Creek War of 1813, but was active in sending his warriors into the field. And for his share in the execution of Little Warrior and his party in the spring of 1813, he was one of the seven chiefs formally condemned to death by the war party. He continued to be the head chief of the nation and speaker of the lower towns until his death in 1832. His grave is yet pointed out on Broken Arrow creek.

References.--American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. i, pp. 845, 849, 857; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. ii, p 839, 840; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 519; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, pp. 35, 59; McCrady's History of South Carolina, 1775-1780, pp. 734-739; Jones' History of Georgia, vol. 2, pp. 455-459.

George Lowery.--A cousin of Sequoyah and second chief of the eastern Cherokees under John Ross, commonly known as Major Lowrey. His native name was Agili (he is rising) possibly a contraction of an old personal name Agin-Agio-li. He joined Ross in steadily opposing all attempts to force his people to move from their eastern lands and later after this had been accomplished he was chief of a council of the eastern Cherokees at the meeting held in 1839 to fuse the eastern and western divisions into the present Cherokee Nation.

(See Handbook of American Indians, Part I, pp. 770. )

Malatchee, Malahchee or Malachi, Creek chief, born about 1711, as in May, 1740, he claimed to be nearly thirty years old, was the son of Bream of Coweta, the head chief of the Muscogees. Bream had an elder son, named Auletta, who, in July, 1721, went to Charleston to hold a talk with Governor Nicholson, and to make up their differences. Malatchee was still a youth at the time of the death of Bream, his father. The chief power was then put into the hands of Chigillie, Chickeley or Chikilee, apparently a brother of Bream, until Malatchee should arrive at years of maturity. In 1736 a school for the instruction of Creek children, under the charge of the Rev. Benjamin Ingram, was inistration of the affairs of his people. Malatchee was at once proclaimed and saluted Supreme Chief of the Creek Nation. A document setting forth this act was immediately prepared by Bosomworth, signed by the chiefs and attested by some Englishmen present. Malatchee requested that a copy should be sent to!
the King of England and that due record should be made of the original. Bosomworth's object in this matter, and its unpleasant results, are fully given by Colonel C. C. Jones in his History of Georgia. In 1752 the Creeks had a quarrel with the Cherokees, in which the former committed some outrages, among others scalping an English trader. On Governor Glen's demand for satisfaction, Malatchee with a hundred warriors visited Charleston. After a talk by the Governor, Malatchee made a talk in which he apologized for the conduct of the Creeks, and the whole affair was satisfactorily adjusted. Malatchee's talk has been preserved by Hewatt, the South Carolina historian. On the fifth day of November, 1754, six days after he was inducted into the office as Captain-General and Governor in Chief of the Province of Georgia, Governor John Reynolds sent a talk to Malatchee in which he assured him that he would use every means to preserve the good understanding that then existed between the!
King's subjects of Georgia and the Creek Nation. That it would be
have an opportunity of shaking hands with him, and talking with him face to face. That he would notify him when it would be proper for him to come to Savannah, where he would be able to give him a further testimony of his love and friendship. "In the meantime, I wish you, your wives and children health and prosperity, assuring you that I am your loving friend and brother."

Malatchee died in 1755. This date is based upon a statement made by his son Togoulki or Thougoulskie (the Young Twin ), at the Augusta Congress of 1763, that his father had been dead eight years. This fixes 1755 as the year of his death. The American Indians, from time immemorial, universally held to the custom of burying all movable property in the grave,with the deceased. After long persuation by the traders, the Cherokees, by the middle of the eighteenth century, had, in a great measure, given up this custom. Malatchee, whether influenced by white people, or whether it was the result of his own thinking, certainly had advanced ideas on this subject. Adair writes: "Except the Cherokee, only one instance of deviation, from this ancient and general Indian custom occurs to me: which was that of Malahche, the late famous chieftain of the Kowwetah war-town of the lower part of the Muskogee country, who bequeathed all he possessed to his real, and adopted relations,--being sensibl!
e they would be much more useful to his living friends, than to himself during his long sleep: he displayed a genius far superior to the crowd." Malatchee was succeeded in the chieftainship by his son, Tougulki, or as frequently known, "Young Twin." For a few years before actually assuming the office, Tougoulki's uncle, Sampiaffi, acted as his guardian.

References.--Year Book of Charleston, S. C. (1894), p. 339; The Colonial Records of Georgia, vol. 4, pp. 565, S66, 561; Adair's American Indians (1775), p. 178; Hewett's History of South Carolina, vol. i, pp. 173-178; Jones' History of Georgia, vol. i, pp. 327-331, 392, 399; The Colonial Records of Georgia, vol. 7, p. 24; Ibid, vol. 21, p. 22.

McIntosh, Chilly.--A Creek chief. After his brother, William, was slain by Menewa for having betrayed the Creeks by "selling the graves of their ancestors," he became the head of the minority party that acquiesced in the proposed emigration to Indian Ter. As such he frequently visited Washington to treat with officials regarding the transfer of lands and acquitted himself as a capable man of business.--Stanley, Portraits Am. Inds., 13, 1852.

(Handbook of American Indians, Vol. 1, p. 781.)

McGillivray, Alexander, diplomat and merchant, was born probably at Fort Toulouse, or in the town of Taskigi, one half mile below the fort, and died February 17, 1793, at Pensacola, Fla.; son of Lachlan and Sehoy (Marchand) McGillivray, the former a native of Dunmaglass, Scotland, who, at the age of sixteen, came to the Carolinas, joined a party of Indian traders, is first known as an Indian trader on the Chattahoochee River, probably at Coweta, in 1735, who after the Revolution embarked for his native land, leaving his wife and children, his plantation and worldly possessions, in the hopes that they might be allowed to fall into their possession, but all of his property was seized and they were left in destitute circumstances, the latter a half breed Creek woman; grandson of Captain Marchand and wife, a full blood Creek woman of the Wind Tribe, the former was killed at Fort Toulouse in 1722. Alexander McGillivray was educated at Charleston, S. C. In 1784 he was known as the e!
mperor of the Creeks and Seminoles and negotiated the treaty with Spain at Pensacola. He visited President Washington at New York in 1790 and was appointed agent of the United States, with rank of brigadier-general. Shortly afterwards the King of Spain appointed him superintendent general of the Creek Nation for Spain. At the same time he was a member of the firm of Panton's, merchants of Pensacola. His principal residence was at Little Talasi, five miles above the present site of Wetumpka on the Coosa River, on what is now known as the Rose plantation. His plantation on Little River was known as "cowpen" and still another was at Hickory Ground, on the left bank of the Coosa two miles above Fort Toulouse, and below the present site of Wetumpka. He had three wives and left three children, Alexander, Jr., and two daughters. Last residence: Little Talasi, on the Coosa River.

McQueen, Peter, Creek Chief, born probably 1780, and on Line Creek in Montgomery County, Alabama, was the son of James McQueen and a Tallassee woman. James McQueen was a Scotchman, born, it is said in 1683, deserted from a British vessel at St. Ausgustine in 1710, went to the Creek Mims, as it contained many of their white and half-breed antagonists at Burnt Corn, and to some fort in the fork of the Tombigbee and Alabama. Fort Mims was accordingly unanimously selected, and after twenty days' discussion, Fort Sinquefield was the fort selected in the fork. McQueen was a prominent chief at the massacre of Fort Mims. He seems not to have been present at the battle of the Horse-Shoe. After this defeat, he and his two brothers-in-law, John and Sandy Durant, placed themselves for a short time with their people on the headwaters of Line Creek. Thence they went to Florida. Owing to the confusion of the times, McQueen left his negroes in the Creek Nation, which were unjustly appropriat!
ed by some half-bloods. that were American partisans. He afterwards made a vain effort to have them sent to him in Florida. With these grievances it could hardly be otherwise that McQueen was by no means averse to reviving the war. General Thomas Woodward writes of meeting him and Josiah Francis at Fort Hawkins near the close of 1817. The two chiefs were there trading and their meeting with their old acquaintance, Woodward, was entirely friendly. Very soon after this, the fugitive Creeks and Seminoles were at open war against the Americans, and Peter McQueen was recognized as the head leader. The war of 1818 in Florida known in history as the first Seminole war, was fought almost solely by the friendly Indians under General William McIntosh against the Red Stick Creeks and Seminoles under Peter McQueen. There was very little fighting done by the Americans. The most notable fight was on April 12, 1818, at Econfinnah, in which McQueen was defeated with the loss of thirty-seven m!
en killed, and six men and ninety-seven women and children capture
of cattle. McIntosh's loss was three men killed and four wounded. At the close of the Florida war McQueen took refuge on a barren island. on the Atlantic side of Cape Florida, where he soon after died. After his death his widow returned to the Creek Nation and married Willy McQueen, a nephew of Peter, and became the mother of two daughters, Sophis and Muscogee, and two or three sons. Her children by Peter were a son, James, and three daughters, Milly (Malee), Nancy and Tallassee.

References.--Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition 1900), 517, 521; Meek's Romantic Passages in Southeastern History (1854), pp. 544, 547; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. i, pp. 847, 849, 851, 852, 857; American State Papers, Military Affairs, vol. i, pp, 682, 683, 700, 749; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek, or Muscogee Indians (1857), pp. 9, 21, 25, 42, 44. 48, 97, 110, 153; Parton's Life of Jackson (1861), vol. ii, pp. 447, 449; Buell's History of Jackson (1894), vol. ii, pp. 127; Halbert and Ball's Creek War (1895), pp. 125-149.

McIntosh, William, Creek chief, born at Coweta, Creek nation, probably about 1775, was the son of Captain William McIntosh, of the British army and a full blood Creek woman. Nothing is known of his early life, only it may be inferred from the fair education which he had acquired and his proficiency in the English language that he must have passed much of it in association with white people. A tradition states that he could even speak some Gaelic, an evidence of his mingling in boyhood or youth with Scotch Highlanders somewhere in Georgia. He first appears in history as one of the signers of the treaty of Washington November 14, 180S. After this, nothing is known of his history until April, 1813, when he sent a band of warriors to Tuckabatchie to assist the Upper Creek authorities in arresting Little


A Lower Creek Chief born at Coweta in the present Russell County; massacred at his home in Carroll County, Georgia March 31, 1825.

Warrior and his associates, who had committed some murders at the mouth of the Ohio in February, 1813. The murderers were all put to death. For this action, and on account of his sympathy for the Americans, sentence of death was passed upon him by the hostile Creeks. At the same time six other chiefs were condemned to death. In the fall of that year he appears as the leader of a band of Cowetas in the army of General John Floyd. He was at the battle of Atossee, November 14, 1813, and, General Floyd in his report states that McIntosh and his braves fought in this battle "with an intrepidity worthy of any troops." He also distinguished himself at the battle of the Horseshoe, where General Jackson in his report speaks of him as "Major McIntosh."

His name appears as one of the signers of the treaty of Fort Jackson, August 9, 1814. He was also a signer of the treaty of the Creek Agency, Georgia, January 22, 1818. After this, at the head of a force of Creek Warriors he joined General Jackson in Florida for service against the Seminoles. He was commissioned general and placed in command of all the Indian troops, together with a company af Tennessee cavalry. In this short Seminole war, "he signalized himself by various acts of gallantry." General Jackson, in his report of the fight at Econafinnah, says: "On the morning of the 12th (April, 1818), near Econfinnah, or Natural Bridge, a party of Indians were discovered on the margin of a swamp, and attacked by General McIntosh, and about fifty Tennessee volunteers, who routed them, killing thirty-seven warriors, and capturing six men and ninety-seven women and children; also recapturing a white woman who had been taken at the massacre of Scott. The friendly Indians also took s!
ome horses, and about five hundred head of cattle from the enemy, who proved to be McQueen's party."

Another official report states that General McIntosh in this fight killed with his own hand three of the enemy and captured one. General Thomas Woodward with five other white men was with General McIntosh in this fight, in which the white woman, Mrs. Stuart, was rescued. She had been a captive since November 30, 1817. General Woodward thus describes this affair, generally known as "McIntosh's fight." "Shortly after the firing commenced, we could hear a female voice in the English language calling for help, but she was concealed from our view. The hostile Indians, though greatly inferior in number to our whole force, had the advantage of the ground, it being a dense thicket, and kept the party that first attacked at bay until General McIntosh arrived with the main force. McIntosh, though raised among savages, was a General; yes, he was one of God's make of Generals. I could hear his voice above the din of fire-arms--'Save the white woman! Save the Indian women and children!' Al!
l this time Mrs. Stuart was between the fires of the combatants. McIntosh said to me. 'Chulataria Emathla, you, Brown and Mitchell, go to that woman.' (Chulataria Emathla was the name I was known by among the Indians.) Mitchell was a good soldier and a bad cripple from rheumatism. He dismounted from his horse and said, 'Boys, let me lead the way.' We made the charge with some Uchees and Creeks but Mitchell, poor fellow, was soon left behind, in consequence of his inability to travel on foot. I can see her now, squatted in the saw-palmetto, among a few dwarf cabbage trees, surrounded by a group of Indian women. There I saw Brown kill an Indian, and I got my rifle-stock shot off just back of the lock. Old Jack Carter came up with my horse shortly after we cut off the woman from the warriors. I got his musket and used it until the fight ended."

General McIntosh was mainly instrumental in negotiating the treaty of January 8, 1821. This treaty was certainly illegal, for it was made by a party representing only one-tenth of the nation, and to be legal it should have had the consent of the whole nation, assembled in public council. While the Creeks submitted to it, they became alarmed at this cession of their domain. As far back as 1811, in the council held at Broken Arrow, they had enacted a law, forbidding, under the penalty of death, the cession of land, except by the chiefs of the nation and ratified in full council. Rendered uneasy by this and other acts of General McIntosh, this law was formally re-enacted at Polecat Springs in 1824.

In their progress in agriculture and education the Creeks were becoming more and more appreciative of the value of their lands, and consequently were more and more reluctant to part with them. The treaty of Indian Springs of February 12, 1825, made in defiance of the national law, was the fatal mistake of General McIntosh, and he had to pay the penalty. The Creek nation was greatly excited by this treaty, and in due time, a secret council of the Upper Creeks convened, and at it one hundred and seventy men were appointed to take the life of McIntosh. They received minute instructions as to their marching, place of camping, and the manner of the execution, and ere long were on their way to the Chattahoochee River, on the west bank of which, near Coweta, stood the house of McIntosh. There are several versions, differing in details, as to the manner in which General McIntosh was killed in the early morning of April 30, 1825.

Pickett's version is undoubtedly the most trustworthy, and with the omission of such circumstances as the escape of Chilly McIntosh and the burning of an outhouse, which occurred before the attack on the main house, it is here given:

"In the meantime, the principal body of the assailants had surrounded the main building, and the lightwood being immediately kindled, torches were applied to the sides, and under it. The flames threw a bright light over the yard, and exhibited to the astonished family of McIntosh the approaching conflagration of the houses, and the hideous forms of those who were to murder them. They frequently shouted with much exultation, McIntosh, we have come, we have come. We told you, if you sold the land to the Georgians, we would come.'

"McIntosh, upon the first discovery of the assailants, had barricaded his front door, and stood near it when it was forced. He fired on them, and at that moment, one of his steadfast friends, Tona Tustinungee, fell lifeless upon the threshold. His body was riddled with balls. McIntosh then retreated to the second story, with four guns in his hand, which he continued to discharge from a window. He fought with great courage, and, aware that his end was near, determined to sell his life as dear as possible. He was at this time the only occupant of the burning house, for his two wives, Peggy and Susannah, who had been dragged into the yard, were heard imploring the savages not to burn him up, but to get him out of the house,, and shoot him, as he was a brave man, and an Indian like themselves. McIntosh now came down to the first story, and was received with salutes of the rifle, until, being pierced with many balls, he fell to the floor, was seized by the legs, and dragged down th!
e steps to the ground. While lying in the yard, and while the blood was gushing from his wounds, he raised himself on one arm, and surveyed his murderers with looks of defiance. At that moment, an Ocfuskee Indian plunged a long knife, to the hilt, in the direction of his heart. He brought a long breath, and expired. The party, after this, plundered the houses, killed the stock, and committed other depredations, as described in the public papers of that day."

It may be added that on the same day and very soon after General McIntosh's death, his son-in-law, Sam Hawkins, was killed at his own residence by a party of warriors detailed for that purpose.

The best and most charitable commentary upon the inducements which prompted General McIntosh to defy the law of his nation and thus incur its deadly penalty, was written by Colonel Thomas L. McKenney, who says:

"He propably foresaw that his people would have no rest within the limits of Georgia, and perhaps acted with an honest view to their interests. The intercourse he had enjoyed with the Army of the United States, and the triumph of their arms over the desperate valour of the Indians, which he had witnessed at Autossee, the Horseshoe, and in Florida, induced him to believe he would be safe under the shadow of their protection, even from the vengeance of his tribe. But there were, besides, strong appeals to his cupidity, in the provisions of the treaty of the Indian Springs, and in its supplements. By one of these, the Indian Spring; reservation was secured to him; and by another it was agreed to pay him for it twenty-five thousand dollars. Moreover, the second article of the treaty provided for the payment to the Creek Nation, of four hundred thousand dollars. Of this sum he would of course have received his share. Such inducements might have been sufficiently powerful to shake a!
virtue based upon a surer foundation than the education of a heathen Indian could afford. Besides this, he was flattered and caressed by the Commissioners, who were extremely eager to complete the treaty, and taught to believe he was consulting the ultimate advantage of the nation. These considerations, in some measure, remove the odium from his memory. But it must still bear the stain which Indian justice affixes to the reputation of the chief who sells, under such circumstances, the graves of his fathers."

General McIntosh is represented as a tall, finely formed man, with polished manners, which he had acquired from contact with the more refined of the white people and from association with army officers on the Southern frontier. He was the owner of a number of negro slaves. whom he treated kindly, and possessed considerable wealth.

General McIntosh had a half-brother on his father's side, named Rolin or Rolla, and a half-brother on his mother's side, named Hogey, often called Hogey McIntosh, who was a full blooded Indian. He had two wives, named Peggy and Sussanah, one of whom was a Creek, the other a Cherokee, but in the lack of records, it cannot be decided to which nationality each one respectively belonged. His Creek children were two sons, Chilly, who succeeded him in the chieftainship, and Lewis, and three daughters, Jane, Hetty, and Lucy. Jane was the oldest daughter. She first married Billy Mitchell, a son of the Creek agent David B. Mitchell; she next married Sam Hawkins, whose death has already been noted. She then married Paddy Carr, but left him and went to Arkansas Territory at an early day. General McIntosh had only one Charokee child, a daughter, who married Ben Hawkins, a brother of Sam. Ben was killed years afterwards in Texas. The McIntosh family has ever been distinguished in the Creek!
Nation, prominent in church, state and military affairs. Several of them were Confederate field officers. The blood of the McIntosh clan thus shows that it was born to command, even when mingled with the wild blood of the Muscogee Indian.

General McIntosh wrote an official report on the affair of: Econfinnah, which has the distinction of being the first report of this character ever written by an American Indian.

Nearly all the fighting of the first Seminole war was done by General McIntosh's command. They were mustered out of service on April 24. (Parton's Life of Jackson, vol. ii, p 463.) A summary of their campaign is thus recorded by D. B. Mitchell, the Creek agent: "When McIntosh and his warriors were mustered at Fort Mitchell, he divided his force, and with that part which he retained under his own command, he descended the Chattahoochee on its western bank, and on reaching the town called Red Ground, encountered their chief and warriors this affair he took fifty-three warriors, and one hundred and thirty women and children. The chief made his escape with a few warriors. Colonel Lovett, with the rest of the warriors, mustered at Fort Mitchell, descended the Chattahoochee on the eastern bank, and General McIntosh crossing the river below the fork, the two detachments united on their march to Mickasuky, where they joined General Jackson. At Mickasuky the Indians had generally fled,!
and but few were found at the town. On the march to Suwany, McIntosh, with his warriors, encountered about two hundred of the hostile party, under Peter McQueen, of whom he killed thirty-seven, and made six warriors and one hundred and six women and children prisoners. The next enemy thee engaged were the negroes of Sauwanee, amounting to about two hundred and fifty, of whom eleven or twelve were killed, and three made prisoners. The Indians of this part of the country fled before the army, and here ended the Seminole campaign, as far as the Indians were concerned."

(American State Papers, Military Affairs, vol. i, p. 749.)
References.--McKenney and Hall's Indian Tribes of North America (1854), vol. 1, pp. 129-133; American State Papers, Military Affairs, vol. 1, pp. 699-701; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. 1, pp. 841, 843, 852; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 519, 558; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 50, 54, 55, 114; White's Historical Collections of Georgia (1855), pp. 170-173; Handbook of American Indians (1907), part 2, p. 782; Spark's Memories of Fifty Years (1872), pp. 467-473; and Alabama Historical Reporter, vol. 3, No. 7, July, 1855; and Parton's Life of Andrew Jackson (168,1), vol. ii, pp. 4.59, 460.

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