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From:
Subject: Re: [DNA] YAP
Date: Sun, 28 Sep 2003 11:15:43 EDT


In a message dated 09/26/03 6:36:44 PM Pacific Daylight Time,
writes:

> In Oppenheimers book "The Real Eve" on page 187 he has this subtitle in a
> chapter "The Yap controversy: African or Asian"
> I thought if a gentleman tested positive for YAP it was African. But
> Oppenheimer says it can be Asian.
> I would love to hear a discussion on this sometime on this list. When I
> see YAP+ and YAP - does that mean testing positive and negative?
> and
> on page 186, and sorry if you don't have this book, I just can't explain
> without the example. Abel tests YAP then 145 then 203. OK what is the 145 and
> 203?? Also he had two "sons" E and D. Did they mutate if that is the
> proper way to say it, and not have YAP.

That website you referred to is a good one to review every once in a while.

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/ScienceSpectra-pages/SciSpect-14-98.html

I recall you asked about YAP (Y Alu Polymorphism) a while back, and I
remembered Oppenheimer had a section about it, but I couldn't find it in the index.
It is indexed under "Abel," the nickname he gave for Haplogroups D & E.
Grrrrrrr.

Anyway, you can also refer to the Haplogroup diagram at FTDNA.

http://www.ftdna.com/haplotree.html

The Alu sequence is a chunk of DNA, a few hundred bases in length, which has
been inserted all over the human genome. This has apparently happened only
once on the Y chromosome, though, so it serves as a Unique Event Polymorphism
(UEP).

On the Haplogroup diagram, YAP is the mutation which defines D & E: they have
the insertion (YAP+), but all the other haplogroups do not (YAP-). All the
descendants in the different branches of D & E will be YAP+.

According to the diagram in the book, everyone who has YAP also has M145 and
M203. Those are SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, another category of
UEP). We won't know in what order those SNPs occurred until we locate somebody
doesn't have them all. [According to the diagram at FTDNA, it is M145 and M213;
I think that may be a typo.]

There is controversy about when and where YAP originated. Some branches are
common in Asia but others are found in Africa (possibly as a back-migration). I
belive African Ancestry is the only company which is testing for it right
now, so it must be helpful to them in sorting out African tribes.

Just this past week I saw an abstract at PubMed which reported a new variant.
They call it deep-rooting, which might mean they have found someone who is
YAP+ but who doesn't fit into D or E. I haven't seen the full article, though,
so I might be reading too much into it.

Genetics. 2003 Sep;165(1):229-34.

Rare Deep-Rooting Y Chromosome Lineages in Humans. Lessons for
phylogeography.

Weale ME, Shah T, Jones AL, Greenhalgh J, Wilson JF, Nymadawa P, Zeitlin D,
Connell BA, Bradman N, Thomas MG.

The Centre for Genetic Anthropology, Department of Biology, University
College,
London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom.

There has been considerable debate on the geographic origin of the human Y
chromosome Alu polymorphism (YAP). Here we report a new, very rare
deep-rooting
haplogroup within the YAP clade, together with data on other deep-rooting YAP
clades. The new haplogroup, found so far in only five Nigerians, is the
least-derived YAP haplogroup according to currently known binary markers.
However, because the interior branching order of the Y chromosome
genealogical
tree remains unknown, it is impossible to impute the origin of the YAP clade
with certainty. We discuss the problems presented by rare deep-rooting
lineages
for Y chromosome phylogeography.

-----

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