Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2003-10 > 1065152245

From: "Annie, The WritingTeacher" <>
Subject: [DNA] R1a and R1a1
Date: Thu, 02 Oct 2003 20:37:32 -0700

Hammer found R1a only in one Armenian and in one Byelorussian. But R1a1 is
very common all over eastern Europe. He theorizes that it's either Sorb or
Khazar Y chromosome, but emphasizes it's only a hypothesis. The problem
would clarify if someone removed a tooth from a Khazar skeleton and compared
it with modern people from Chuvashia and other areas. Presently ongoing
studies are being done in Chuvashia to see whether the Chuvash, speaking the
language closest in the world to medieval Khazari have any pecular
similarity to Ashkenazi Levites. The R1a1 is found at 52% in Ashkenazi
Levites, but not in non-Levites (Ashkenazi) or anyone else from his study,
but it's common among the general population of Eastern Europe. So further
studies are ongoing. R1a1 is all over Armenia, Georgia, and Eastern Europe
in general including the Sorbs, the Poles, and many people of central
Europe. It's also in Finland and many R1a1 people went west to Scotland and

When I looked it up in Oppenheimer's book, R1a1 comes from an ancestor M217
and originated in Central Asia with the 30,000 year old Gravettian wave that
came out of Central Asia 30,000 years ago and settled in the Ukraine then.
It's all over E. Europe and in some western countries. The really rare Y
chromosome is R1a. That shows up all over at very low levels, and so far
only in two people tested, one Armenian and one Beyelorussian. Cohens and
non-Levites more frequently have Near Eastern origins in the majority of men
tested for Y chromosome. The mtDNA is closer to the host country in
Ashkenazi and different from the host country in non-Ashkenazi, but each
individual has to be looked at separately as the whole sample is a mosaic of
many communities mixed together. Interestingly, the R1a1 was inroduced only
900-1000 years ago into only the Ashkenazic Levite male population. The
question is, was R1a1 a Khazar or a Sorb or who else? Nobody knows as yet
because Khazar Y chromo has not yet been identified.

My feeling on this is if Sykes took DNA out of a tooth from 9,000 year old
Cheddar man or the skeleton in Gough's cave in London that was 12,500 years
old, surely someone over there in Russia can get a tooth out of one of those
Khazar skeletons and extract DNA to see whether it's R1a1 or something else.
Perhaps the cemetaries are underwater. Whatever, R1a1 had a long trip from
Central Asia to Europe and is now found all over. The unique point of the
article was that R1a1 was introduced into the specific Levite Ashkenazi male
population 900-1,000 years ago by one man or a very few men, Hammer
theorizes, from either E. Europe or Central Asia or the area just N. of
Georgia on the Black Sea, which is where the Khazar empire existed. However,
it's also found in East German Sorbs. So will the real ancestor please stand
up and smile? If you have R1a1 and are from Britain, it may have gotten to
that part of W. Europe via the Vikings. They sailed down the Volga in the
isinglass trade in the 10th century and many Rus joined them. The Y chromo
type is common all over E. Europe. Hope this helps.

Anne Hart
DNA books and articles at:

novels excerpts and info at:

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