Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2005-08 > 1123986497

From: Ted Kandell <>
Subject: Haplogroup G, The Diverse Origins of the Ancient Israelites, and the MRCA between G* European Jews and G* Arabs
Date: Sat, 13 Aug 2005 19:28:17 -0700 (PDT)

There is evidence who the closest non-Jewish relatives
of the Ashkenazi (Jewish) Y-chromosome G* clade are.
Yes, Arabs, of a certain kind, and I bet some of the
Palestinian Arabs, in particular, are even closer.

(Somewhat involved history here, so bear with me ...)

But not just any Arabs. There are two sets of tribes:

1. The "Yamanis". These tribes were originally from
South Arabia and Yemen. These tribes moved north after
about 300 - 500 CE. They did not speak "Classical
Arabic" as we know it today, but rather a separate
language, a South Arabian dialect, akin to the Ge'ez
language of ancient Ethiopia. A descendant of this
language is still spoken on the island of Socotra off
the coast of Yemen. These included the Ghassanids, an
Arab dynasty originating from Yemen ruled parts of
Syria, Palestine, and Jordan, as far south as Medina
in the Hijaz, as vassals of the Byzantine Empire.
Their capital was in what is now the Golan Heights.

2. The "Qaysis". Thise are are the North Arabian
tribes, also sometimes called the "Qahtanis",
sometimes called "Arabized Arabs". This is not really
accurate, since these tribes spoke an early version of
Classical Arabic, it just means that they weren't from
South Arabia.
They included the Nabataeans (of Jordan), and the
related Itureans, rulers of the ancient kingdom of
Abilene, of Southern Lebanon and Syria, who were
contemporaries of the Nabateans. (Mythologically,
"Neviot" and "Yatur" are listed as two of the sons of
Ishmael in the Bible. This probably reflects an early
confederation of nomadic Arab tribes.

This group also included the Quraish
- (explanation
here of Yamani and Qahtani), the rulers of Mecca, who
were the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad.

Link to his genealogy:

The Qaysis / Qahtanis are the Arabs that traditionally
wore red and white checkered keffiyehs, as opposed to
black and white ones.

Now it seems that the ancient Hebrews / Israelites /
Judeans were of mixed ethnic origins but coalesced
around 1000 BCE:

for an explanation of the terms "Ashkenazi",
"Sephardi" etc.

For the "founding" haplogroups of the Ashkenazi Jewish
population, see:

Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation
in Ashkenazi Jewish and host non-Jewish European

Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 354–365
DOI 10.1007/s00439-003-1073-7

The MRCA of the E3b* clade of Ashkenazim
[Yiddish-speaking German and Eastern European Jews,
"Ashkenaz" being the Medieval Hebrew name for Germany]
and other Jews as well, is about 1000 BCE.

This haplogroup is most commonly found among Levites.
Their closest genetic relatives are the Egyptians.
(The Levites in the Bible are the only group with
actual Egyptian names, e.g.)

The MRCA of the J* (J1? J2?) Cohanim is also 1000 BCE.
See Y-chromosomal Aaron. This is found among Cohanim
in all Jewish populations. This date would be too late
for the mythical Biblical Aaron, 1200 - 1450 BCE. No,
they are *not* closely related to the Levites. This
seems to be the lineage of the "Zadokite" high
priests, that is those descended from Zadok, the High
Priest of David and Solomon, who replaced the previous
line of Eli.

This lineage, and its collateral lines, including the
Hasmoneans, held the office of High Priest up until
the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. All Cohanim
were descendants of the High Priests. A very
interesting fact, is that Zadok lived just about 1000
BCE the same time as the MRCA of the "Cohen Modal
Haplotype" (the time of David, who *was* almost
certainly historical). The closest genetic relation of
the Cohanim are the Kurds of northern Iraq and eastern

Then you have the G* clade among Ashkenazim. The
evidence shows that all who are in it are descended
from a *single* individual who lived approximately
2000 years ago.

This would be the date of either the First Jewish
Revolt in 70 CE, or the Bar-Kokhba Revolt in 135 CE.
It is well known that Jews were taken prisoner and
deported to Rome after both revolts.

The Ashkenazi community originated with the Jews of
Italy, who were transfered to the city of Mainz by a
Carolingian king "Charles" circa 876 - 895 CE.

We don't know yet if any Sephardim and Mizrachim are
G* (there are some in haplogroup G2 though), but there
probably are. Now, as you will see below, the MRCA of
these Ashkenazim, with a 90% confidence interval, and
a certain set of Arabs (the Qaysis / Qahtanis) is ...
1000 BCE.

The Bible, in its non-literal, mythological way (my
opinion) pretty much states this:

Many Levites have Egyptian names: Moses, Assir,
Pashhur, Hophni, Phenehas, and Merari.

The Kenites, or some Midianites, formed a part of the
Israelite confederation. Midian (Arabic "Madyan") was
the area of of modern Saudi Arabia, just south of
Jordan, and north of the Hejaz. The Midianites are
noted in the Bible as being raiders who rode swift
camels, just as their succesors in north Arabia, the
Qaysi / Qahtani Arabs did.

The Hittites were said to have formed part of the
Canaanites. (See Hittites in the Bible.) There were
Hittites present in the Israelite Kingdom, notably
"Uriah the Hittite". It is clear that these "Hittites"
later formed a part of the Israelites. The Hittite
Empire of the Late Bronze Age encompassed the area of
eastern Turkey and northern Syria, the same region
where the Kurds live today.

Read this:

1Kings:9:20: And all the people that were left of the
Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, Hivites, and
Jebusites, which were not of the children of Israel,
21: Their children that were left after them in the
land, whom the children of Israel also were not able
utterly to destroy, upon those did Solomon levy a
tribute of bondservice unto this day.

Now all this certainly does *not* confirm the
historicity of the Bible in a literal sense. Quite the
contrary: The Jews, and almost certainly the
Israelites, were of diverse ethnic origins, and not
descended from a single ancestor. (See the Habiru in
Wikipedia, late Bronze Age invaders of Canaan.)
However, the newly-found genetic evidence *does* seem
to confirm a "close reading" of the later history of
the Israelites and Judeans as found in the Bible, as
well as recent archaeological evidence.

(See the recent book by Israel Finkestein and Neil
Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's
New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its
Sacred Texts)

It is quite curious, and pretty much beyond
coincidence, that the MRCAs of all these separate
haplogroups point to the exact period when the
Israelite Kingdom was formed (the time of Saul, David,
and Solomon) and not before or later.

Now here is the evidence for the MRCA between the
Ashkenazi G* clade, (myself in particular, I am very
close to the modal haplotype of this clade) and a
certain contemporary member of the Hashemite Dynasty:

(The Hashemite Sharifs of Mecca have as good a claim
as anyone, and better than almost everyone else today,
to be male-line the descendants of the Prophet
Muhammad and his paternal cousin Ali ibn Abu Talib.
Their descent is documented through historically
attested individuals, as one can see in the genealogy

(Anyone who wants to can compare my haplotype on
Ysearch: YGYTX, and that of Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein
Al-Hashimi: AT5U9.)

MRCA between YGYTX and AT5U9 from Bennett Greenspan,

100 years 0.00%
200 years 0.00%
300 years 0.00%
400 years 0.00%
500 years 0.00%
600 years 0.02%
700 years 0.07%
800 years 0.23%
900 years 0.58%
1000 years 1.26%
1100 years 2.43%
1200 years 4.26%
1300 years 6.86%
1400 years 10.31%
1500 years 14.62%
1600 years 19.73%
1700 years 25.49%
1800 years 31.75%
1900 years 38.30%
2000 years 44.94%
2100 years 51.49%
2200 years 57.79%
2300 years 63.69%
2400 years 69.13%
2500 years 74.03%
2600 years 78.37%
2700 years 82.17%
2800 years 85.43%
2900 years 88.20%
3000 years 90.52%

Ali bin Hussein "Al Shareif" or more properly "Sharif
Ali bin al-Hussein Al-Hashimi":

Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein - Wikipedia, the free

The Hashemite dynasty traces its roots to the Prophet
Muhammad. King Faisal I led the Arab revolt against
the Ottomans in 1917 along with T.E. Lawrence, the
British officer known as Lawrence of Arabia. At the
time, the Hashemites were the Sharifs of Mecca, rulers
of Islam's holiest city. They were driven from Mecca
by the Saudis after World War I.

Sharif Ali ibn al-Hussein Al-Hashimi's full genealogy
is here:

The Hashemite Dynasty / the Sharifs of Mecca

* c) Sharif 'Ali bin Al-Hussein. b. at Baghdad,
Iraq, 1956, educ. Univ. of Essex. Self-proclaimed
Pretender to the Throne of Iraq (not in accordance
with the laws of succession). m. Lina, and has issue,
one son and three daughters.

Ted Kandell


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