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From: "Michael L. Hébert" <>
Subject: RE: Mutations (was [DNA] Genealogy as we knew it)
Date: Sat, 22 Apr 2006 16:13:09 -0500
In-Reply-To: <000e01c66627$4e44d790$bec79045@Ken1>


Thanks for the info Ken. I will have to delve deeper into this in my
reading on genetic gen.


-----Original Message-----
From: Ken Nordtvedt [mailto:]
Sent: Saturday, April 22, 2006 11:11 AM
To:
Subject: Re: Mutations (was [DNA] Genealogy as we knew it)


[Yes, on average there is probably a SNP mutation somewhere in all the base

pairs a mutation every father/son transition, or every second
transition..... This is all ball park estimation based on present knowledge

of typical SNP mutation rate and number of base pair sites. This also means

that a decent fraction of the time there might be two SNP mutations in the
same father/son transition, etc.

If there are 200 STRs in our ydna and each had an average of 15 repeats,
that's 3000 base pairs --- a drop in the bucket of all base pairs. But it
could happen, and it would affect the STR reading. If the SNP mutation
falls in the part of the dna chain close on either side of the STR where the

primers match on, it could render the primers inoperative I believe.

As we discover more and more SNP mutations and place them in the Tree, the
chances of seeing an SNP mutation in the past mutate again and define
another more recent branch will increase. This has been seen a couple times

already in the present Tree. R1a is a good example. The very low mutation
rate for SNPs compared to STR rates is what has kept this rare so far.

There is or should be, if nature's wise, correction machinery which notices
and corrects some mutations. For the important operative genes I would
think some strategy and configurations exist which lead to extra stability.
Whether that operates in the part of the ydna which is not supposed to code
for anything important, I don't know.

mtDNA has hyper variable regions and coding regions with different levels of

mutation rate. ]




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