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From: "Alfred A. Aburto Jr." <>
Subject: Y haplogroup J in Iran
Date: Thu, 29 Jun 2006 07:45:32 -0700


What follows is a summary and some comments of a paper by Regueiro et
al., "Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration",
Human Heredity (2006) 61:132-143 for haplogroup J.

There were a total of 170 Iranians tested for a wide variety SNP's. The
data is divided into North Iran with 33 samples, and South Iran with 117
samples. The dividing line into north and south was the deserts of the
central Iran (Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut).

In northern Iran the haplogroups found were:
J 33.33%
R 27.27%
G 15.15%
Q 9.09%
N 6.06%

In southern Iran the haplogroups found were:
J 35.04%
R 25.64%
G 12.82%
E 6.84%
L 5.98%
K 3.42%

J is the most frequent haplogroup in Iran at 33% in North Iran and 35%
in South Iran. It is curious that J, R, and G were more or less evenly
distributed between north and south Iran, whereas Q and N were found
only in north Iran, and E, L, and K only in south Iran.

The J haplogroup results are shown in the Table 1 below. The haplogroup
frequencies are given as (North Iran%, South Iran%). A SNP that was not
tested is indicated as N/T in the table. A SNP that was tested but not
found in the population tested is indicated as 0% (the 0% here does not
it is not present in the population, only that it was not found in the
samples tested). The haplogroup designation is from the International
Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) Y-DNA haplogroup tree (Jun 2006).

J1 occured at 9% in North Iran and 12% in South Iran. J1a and J1e were
not tested. J1b, J1c, and J1d were tested but not found. These are
apparently pretty rare subclades and the sample size was not adequate to
determine a percentage other than 0%. In summary, even though J is the
most frequent haplogroup in Iran, no one was found that fit into the
current known subclades of J1. It could be that a major subclade of J1
is out there and remains to be found, or maybe J1* is it?

J2 occured at 24% in North Iran and 23% in South Iran. J2a was
approximately 20% in North Iran and South Iran. On the otherhand, J2b
occurred at approximately 3% in North and South Iran.

J2a1 occured at a frequency of 18% in North Iran and 15% in South Iran.
What is interesting is that even though fourteen(14) J2a1 SNP's were
tested, J2a1* was approximately 15% in North Iran and 8% in South Iran.
That is, significant numbers of J2a1 types do not fall within the
currently known J2a1 subclades. In addition since there were 33 samples
tested in North Iran and 117 samples tested in South Iran it appears
that the total number of samples tested was insufficient. It appears
that, at least, the total number of samples tested needs to be increased
by a factor greater than 117/33 = 3.5 relative to North Iran. That is,
33 was far too few in North Iran, and 117 is still not sufficient in
South Iran. Perhaps 500 total samples (250 North & South Iran) might
prove more revealing of the true known haplogroup statistics in Iran.

In addition to the testing of SNP's it is always useful to test Y-STR's
(none except DYS413 were tested in Regueiro et al. (2006)). In
particular, for the J haplogroup the Y-STR's associated with the Cohen
Modal Haplotype(CMH) would be useful. These CMH Y-STR are: DYS19, 388,
390, 391, 392, 393, 389I, 389b, 385a, 385b, 426, and 439. In addition
the following set of Y-STR's are informative for haplogroup J: DYS437
(values > 14 are 97% J2 vice J1), DYS438 (little overlap in the
distributions for J1 and J2), DYS445 (defines J2a1k), DYS455 (low values
observed in J2), DYS458 (high values observed in J1), DYS461 (low values
in J2b), and DYS462 (low values in J2).

Overall Regueiro et al. (2006) is a valuable addition to our knowledge
of the J haplogroup statistics in the Middle East.

Table 1. Regueiro et al.(2006), revised relative to the ISOGG Y-Tree.
M304 (J) (33.33%, 35.04%)

M267 (J1) ( 9.09%, 11.97%)
M062 (J1a) N/T
M365 (J1b) 0%
M368 (J1c) 0%
M369 (J1d) 0%
M390 (J1e) N/T

M172 (J2) (24.24%, 23.08%)

M410 (J2a) (21.21%, 19.66%)
(J2a*) ( 3.03%, 4.27%)

DYS413<18 (J2a1) (18.18%, 15.38%)
(J2a1*) (15.15%, 7.69%)
M047 (J2a1a) ( 0.00%, 3.42%)
M067 (J2a1b) ( 3.03%, 1.71%)
M092 (J2a1b1) ( 0.00%, 1.71%)
M327 (J2a1b1a) 0%
M163 (J2a1b2) 0%
M068 (J2a1c) 0%
M137 (J2a1d) 0%
M158 (J2a1e) 0%
M289 (J2a1f) 0%
M318 (J2a1g) 0%
M319 (J2a1h) 0%
M339 (J2a1i) 0%
M419 (J2a1j) ( 0.00%, 0.85%)
DYS445<=7 (J2a1k) N/T
M340 (J2a2) 0%

M012 (J2b) ( 3.03%, 3.42%)
M102 (J2b1) ( 3.03%, 1.71%)
M241 (J2b1a) ( 0.00%, 1.71%)
M099 (J2b1a1) 0%
M280 (J2b1a2) 0%
M321 (J2b1a3) 0%
M205 (J2b1b) N/T


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