Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2007-02 > 1172413482

From: "Ricardo Costa de Oliveira" <>
Subject: [DNA] Ancient Portuguese/Oestrimnios Y-DNA
Date: Sun, 25 Feb 2007 11:24:42 -0300

Oestrimnios (Oestriminis) was the first ethnohistorical conceptualization of
the NorthWestern People from Iberia.

The Ancient Portuguese were first described by the fourth century CE Roman
poet Rufus Avienus Festus (Avieno), in Ora Maritima ("Seacoasts")

Oestrimnios Y-DNA, like the Ibero, or Tartessos Y-DNA, was in Iberia before
the "Celts". Old sources relate the origin of those old people from Africa.
So J1, K2 and E3b1 ancient age could be identified to those first Iberians
and Oestrimnios, before the "snake invasion" ("Celts" from the Pyrenees,
R1b?) of Iberia ?

The genetic fact is that the old Oestrimnios haplotypes would not match any
other's place haplotypes in a temporal distance close to the last 5 thousand
years ore more. That's a long and necessary genetic distance in the Northern
Portuguese haplotypes compared to others regions J1, E3b1 haplotypes.

There are some others common genetic elements in the ancient population of

"HLA-A, -B, -DRB1, -DQA1, and DQB1 alleles were studied in Iberian and
Algerian populations by serology and DNA sequence methodologies. The genetic
and cultural relatedness among Basques, Spaniards, and paleo-North Africans
(Berbers or Tamazights) was established. Portuguese people have also
maintained a certain degree of cultural and ethnic-specific characteristics
since ancient times. The results of the present HLA study in Portuguese
populations show that they have features in common with Basques and
Spaniards from Madrid: a high frequency of the HLA-haplotypes A29-B44-DR7
(ancient western Europeans), A2-B7-DR15 (ancient Europeans and paleo-North
Africans), and A1-B8-DR3 (Europeans) are found as common characteristics.
Portuguese and Basques do not show the Mediterranean A33-B14-DR1 haplotype,
suggesting a lower admixture with Mediterraneans; Spaniards and Algerians do
have this haplotype in a relatively high frequency, indicating a more
extensive Mediterranean genetic influence. The paleo-North African haplotype
A30-B18-DR3 present in Basques, Algerians, and Spaniards is not found in
Portuguese either. The Portuguese have a characteristic unique among world
populations: a high frequency of HLA-A25-B18-DR15 and A26-B38-DR13, which
may reflect a still detectable founder effect coming from ancient
Portuguese, i.e., oestrimnios and conios; Basques and Algerians also show
specific haplotypes, A11-B27-DR1 and A2-B35-DR11, respectively, probably
showing a relatively lower degree of admixture. A neighbor-joining
dendrogram place Basques, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Algerians closer to
each other and more separated from other populations. Genetic, cultural,
geological, and linguistic evidence also supports the hypothesis that people
coming from a fertile Saharan area emigrated towards the north (southern
Europe, Mesopotamia, the Mediterranean Islands, and the North African coast)
when the climate changed drastically to hotter and drier ca 10 000 years

The creation of the Portuguese State and the expansion from the Minho-Douro,
the old Gallaecia Bracarense, was one of the biggest expansions of Y-DNA in
the world in the last thousand years. Hardly any other European small region
could develop such a National State, National Language and Empire like the
Entre-Douro-Minho. I would calculate that there are more than 20 times as
many Y-DNA from the Minho in Brazil, nowadays, than in the original region.
They were the top colonizers of Brazil.

So many haplotypes extinct or rarer in Portugal are abundant in Brazil. May
be the key to the genetic history of the Minho is also in Brazil and not
only in Portugal. Like the Portuguese Language, almost 90% of the speakers
are Brazilians.

Ricardo Costa de Oliveira

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