GENEALOGY-DNA-L ArchivesArchiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2008-05 > 1210609371
From: Cheryl Simani <>
Subject: Re: [DNA] Druze mtDNA -- I & N1
Date: Mon, 12 May 2008 09:22:51 -0700 (PDT)
Ellen & Beth,
Here is the source nearest at hand.
Friedrich Heer, The Medieval World: Europe 1100-1350. Translated from the German by Janet Sondheimer. London: Weidenfeld, 1962.
Page 29: From at least the tenth century Slavs and other heathens captured in war were sold as slaves by the Christian knights of the West. In the twelfth century Henry the Loin sold Danish (Christian) prisoners as slaves thorough the agency of his Slav allies and Diepold von Vohburg sold southern Italians through his mercenaries. This was indeed an appropriate meeting of the Mediterranean south, where classical slavery still persisted, and the Slavonic East! In the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries domestic slaves were imported into Italy via Venice. The Church, in this as in other respects the heir of classical antiquity, was far from condemning slavery. Its leading thirteenth century theologians, such as Tomas Aquinas, recognized slavery as morally justifiable and an economic necessity, quoting Aristotle in support. From the fourteenth century the Popes habitually threatened their enemies with enslavement: in 1303 Boniface VIII pronounced this sentence
on the companies of the Colonna, in1309 Clement V put Venice under the ban of slavery; and, Bologna, Venice and Florence were all later to suffer the same otiose condemnation. Pope Paul III condemned as slaves all Englishmen who sided with Henry VIII: they were to be free booty for the Crusaders who would come to defeat them.
Pages 55-56: Slaves were also an important and constant item of merchandise and slave markets were set up at Venice, Florence and Rome; eminent citizens kept slaves as a matter of course. A lurid light is thrown on the unscrupulous mentality of the Italian traders by the sale into slavery of French and German children, followers of the Childrenss Crusades, who landed at Italian ports and were sold off by the shippers to their Muslim business associates. Slavery came to an end largely for economic reasons where industry was highly developed it became unprofitable. It was abolished first in the smaller towns, at Pistoia in 1205 and at Assisi in 1210, but in Bologna only in 1256 and Florence in 1299. Official prohibition, however, at first only brought about a very gradual alteration.
Beth Long <> wrote:
In the same vein, I wonder about these stories of
extensive slave trade which are presented as fact
(with no references). I would be interested in reading
some detail about this in a reliable source.
Not meaning to start up the old "slave thread" (which
went on and on).
I am more intersted in sources which specifically
discuss places of slave origin and places of slave
reception along with some approximate numbers and the
gender ratio thereof.
Those would seem to be the only questions which are
really relevent to genetic genealogy.
--- ellen Levy wrote:
> How have you logically come to this conclusion based
> on the new Druze study? And how does the etymology
> the word "slave" support your argument?
> Ellen Coffman
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