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Subject: [DNA] Scandinavian L21+
Date: Wed, 17 Dec 2008 11:59:48 -0800


Three haplotypes with Scandinavian surnames/origins have come back L21
(+) & 7-8 have come L21(-). Two of the three L21+ are close matches
to the R1b Scots Modal at 67 markers. They are the only Scandinavian
surname high resolution haplotypes that match the R1b Scots Modal,
one from Norway & one from Sweden. From a historical perspective,
there are substantial historical references to Galloglas mercenaries
in Sweden in recent centuries. R1b Scots Modal is still 100% L21+
with 11 results back & more on order. It is now apparent that those
who said that L21 probably originated in northwestern Europe were
correct. My only comment is that this is consistent with the rise of
the Celts in western Europe, & evidence now suggests that L21 was
widespread in the "proto-Celtic/Celtic" population. That would
account for it's near saturation in those areas of north Britain &
Ireland which are M269+. My guess is that Connacht is possibly
greater than 95% L21, & that L21 follows the same NW to SE cline as
M269. I have been working on colorizing my L21 spread sheets with the
latest results, & I will point out again that the only obvious
difference between L21- haplotypes & L21+ haplotypes is the near
absence of the L21+ cluster modal values in the L21- group. After the
initial L21 mutation, it was apparently passed on through more & more
bottlenecks, until it essentially replaced most of the competition in
the "Celtic fringe" areas of the northern British Isles. I think that
it's safe enough to say that L21 proliferated in the British Isles
after it's entry from the Continent, versus being the dominant
subclade prior to entry. Pat


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