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From: "Richard Stevens" <>
Subject: [DNA] The Origin of L21
Date: Sun, 24 Jan 2010 14:39:02 -0500


A couple of days ago Dr. Anatole Klyosov (http://aklyosov. home.comcast. net/~aklyosov/) offered to update his analysis of L21, with emphasis on its origin and spread, using the haplotypes from the R-L21 Plus Project.

He sent me his analysis this morning. Dr. Klyosov concludes that L21 probably arose first in France, with a TMRCA of 4,200 years, plus or minus 530 years. It appeared in Germany almost simultaneously, with a TMRCA of 4,100 years, plus or minus 530 years. It then spread to the Isles and elsewhere. Since a conversion of the mutation index (an average number of mutations per marker) increases the margin of error, here are the mutation index values: France, 0.263+/-0.020; Germany, 0.257+/-0.021; Scotland, 0.255+/-0.013; England, 0.244+/-0.011; Ireland, 0.217+/-0.008; Wales, 0.189+/-0.020; Scandinavia, 0.179+/-0.020; Netherlands, 0.144+/-0.034.

Obviously, the TMRCAs (and the average mutation ratios) for France and Germany are virtually the same, so what can be said is that L21 probably arose somewhere between the Rhine and the Loire (or between Bohemia and the Atlantic coast of France).

Dr. Klyosov says that the ancestral or base haplotype of L21 is identical to that for P312, so we are talking about a rapid expansion from somewhere on the Continent.

Here is a link to the location of the file:

http://tech. groups.yahoo. com/group/ RL21Project/ files/

Scroll down to R_L21_table. doc and click on it.

Rich


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