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From: "Ken Nordtvedt" <>
Subject: [DNA] Multiple Mutations of SNPs
Date: Thu, 25 Feb 2010 09:01:54 -0700


Let's face it; ultimately most of us males will eventually have a separate technical haplogroup from every other male --- our fathers being most likely our group co-members if any. The present collection of haplogroups are a drop in the bucket and a transient club which only grows in membership with time and discovery. So saying that snps mutating independently in "different" haplogroups is not a firm definition of "parallel mutation" --- the "different" is not really relevant. Snps which simply indicate one of the simpler kinds of inheritable molecular changes in the chromosome can happen again, if they happen once. It is just a matter of how long one waits on average for that to happen. Or translated into what we do --- looking at data --- it is just a matter of how many father/son transitions we examine directly or indirectly.

Just about every snp has happened multiple (many) times in the full y tree --- we just have not found them yet. So now we are starting to find them more often --- big deal!
Nothing radical changes when we find multiple occurrences of snps. We just examine the full context of haplotype STRs and other snps it carries.


The independent mutations of an snp at different locations in the y tree could be in the same present haplogroup or in haplogroups today different but maybe part of the same 5 years ago. Get used to multiple (parallel) mutations of snps. We'll see more and more as we fill out the y tree into the increasingly bushy era of the y tree which approachs the present.


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