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From: "Ken Nordtvedt" <>
Subject: Re: [DNA] Multiple Mutations of SNPs
Date: Thu, 25 Feb 2010 10:36:09 -0700
References: <002401cab633$db271780$5e82af48@Ken1><007b01cab63a$e86daa60$b948ff20$@org>


----- Original Message -----
From: "Lawrence Mayka" <>


> In other words, a "flippy" SNP (Thomas Krahn's term) is no better than a
> slow STR.

[[No, in other words a flippy snp is as good as a very slow STR, or
sometimes better ]]


> But perhaps you are going further and pointing out that _every_ SNP will
> eventually fall into this category, if every Y chromosome in the world
> gets
> thoroughly tested. [[ Yes; the math is pretty clear about this.
But the testing does not make it so; the chemical behavior of the chromosome
and copying machinery makes it so. Testing will just reveal the fact. ]]

That is, somewhere in the world is an L21+ man (within
> R-P312) in whose patrilineage the L21 SNP occurred independently of the
> historic mutation we are all familiar with. I feel sorry for him already,
> because his test results are likely to be misinterpreted even by experts.

[[ I feel sorry for the experts if they so misinterpret or over interpret.
Each molecular event --- and we are talking about individual molecular
events --- needs to be understood within the broader context of what is
going on. This is not a startling thing for chemistry and physics.
Everyone has gotten lazy about the reality of snp events because we have
looked at so few of them, so they seemed to be UEPs. ]]

[[ .... ]] by Ken



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