Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2010-03 > 1267558224

From: David Faux <>
Subject: [DNA] Danish "homeland" of Viking Era emigrants to Eastern Englandand Normandy
Date: Tue, 2 Mar 2010 11:30:24 -0800

In looking at the place name evidence for Scandinavian settlement in both
Eastern England and Normandy, the patterning looks rather similar. The
clustering is very "tight" and extends into the areas which the historical
records tell us were parceled out to chiefs and warriors led by for example
Rollo in Normandy and Guthrum in East Anglia. These areas were both
considered to be conquered by Danes (although allowing for a contribution
from Norway and to a lesser degree Sweden - in an era when national
boundaries were almost constantly shifting). Circa 900 AD "Denmark"
included what is today the not only Denmark by Skane and Oestfold in Sweden,
and Vestfold up Oslofjord to Lillehammer and surrounds.

What can a Danish regional Y chromosome haplogroup analysis tell us about
settlement in the areas of expansion and conquest? My study of R-U152 led
to conclude that there was a probable link between the Eastern aspect of the
Jutland Penninsula and its extension on the Island of Fyn, with Eastern
England and Normandy. So what is the haplogroup break down in this region
of Denmark. That is an interesting question in itself since with the
exception of Borglum et al. (2007), which has serious "depth of genotyping"
problems, not one single population genetics study has taken a regional view
of Denmark. Actually there is a paucity of any Y chromosome data at all
pertaining to that country. At present our best option is the Denmark
geographical project I
used only the mapped data and did a rough tabulation of the haplogroups in
Eastern Denmark - east of the old military road largely following the head
of the fjords from south to north and included Fyn. The breakdown is as
follows (N=45):

I1 - 19

R1b1c - 14 (8 not SNP tested)

R1b1b2a1b4 (R-U152) = 4
R1b1b2a1b3 (R-SRY2627) = 1
R1b1b2a1a (R-U106) = 1

I2b - 4

R1a1 - 2

G2 - 2

J2 - 2

I2a - 1

E1b - 1

I1 is the overwhelming "leader", and R-U152 and I2b are distant seconds.
However, if the R1b1b2 undifferentiated are SNP tested it is highly likely
that R-U152 will be a strong contender but only in this area of Denmark
(Jutland and Fyn) where I1 predominates. It is highly important that Danes
who have not been deep clade tested take the plunge - the percentage who
have done so is remarkably small. What is surprising (to me) is that very
low showing of R-U106. It appears to have a much larger representation on
the more eastern Danish regions in Sealand (Sjaelland) where Copenhagen is
situated. Since R-U106 is much more widespread in the British Isles than
R-U152, it may have been one of the primary components of the Anglo-Saxon
invasions 350 years earlier - arriving from Schleiswig - Holstein,
Friesland, and Saxony where it is still heavily concentrated today
(certainly in the Friesland - North Holland areas).

It is much to early to conclude anything about the haplogroup structure of
Normandy since this geographial project was just begun a couple of months
ago. At the moment the haplotype composition shows R-L21 with a commanding
lead. Of course playing against this background, this Project holds the
promise of answering some questions about the similarities of the haplogroup
structure here in relation to various regions in Denmark. There "should" be
a spike in I1 in Normandy in relation to surrounding regions if the Danes
made a significant impact on the population structure of Normandy as
suggested by place names (which of course can be interpreted in a number of
ways). However without a doubt there was some Scandinavian influence on the
Y genetics of the area, it is only the type and amount that are in question
- but this leaves huge uncertainties. There are to date five Normandy
R-U152 shown in my database for that haplogroup. The closest of this
haplogroup is the Champagne Region to the south. So is the R-U152 here a
signal of Danish settlement, or much earlier influx of Celtic speakers from
the south? Having a percentage of R1a1 somewhat less than half of the
percentage of R-U152 would perhaps support a Danish hypothesis - more R-U152
than R-L21 would not be in keeping with the hypothesis assuming L21 is found
to be ubiquitous across northern France (yet to be demonstrated).

In days gone by my predictions of R-U152 in Jutland and Fyn, based on the
assumption that the Cimbri Tribe of the area were descendants of Celtic
migrants from Southern Germany via the Elbe circa 500 BC, were universally
criticized. It now appears, based on the above evidence that in fact the
hypothesis had merit (much to the chagrin of many naysayers). Another
prediction was that R-U152 would be found in Danish controlled Vestfold
along Oslofjord. This too has been confirmed (with no R-U152 showing up
elsewhere in Norway or Sweden). All three varieties of R-U152 are seen
there (R-U152*, L2*, and L20). My R-U152 Database and the associated Google
Maps (see show all of this in a clear
fashion - and also include those tested by 23andMe.

I feel very much vindicated by the data (clearly supporting the hypotheses),
and no longer expect unrelenting criticism, but of course expect those with
an axe to grind to take exception to something or other. So be it.

David K. Faux.

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