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Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2010-03 > 1269187164


From: "Lawrence Mayka" <>
Subject: Re: [DNA] Native American DNA
Date: Sun, 21 Mar 2010 10:59:24 -0500
References: <8a23028b1003210432t14753f9dmdab9a36ee5f20d69@mail.gmail.com><4BA624BE.20003@san.rr.com>
In-Reply-To: <4BA624BE.20003@san.rr.com>


Here is what the Smithsonian Institution says about waves of immigration to
America. Luckily, the political correctness police have not gotten to this
article yet:

http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_Si/nmnh/origin.htm
---
In addition to archaeological research on ancient human sites, ancient
skeletal remains show a range of physical attributes suggesting separate
migrations of different populations of modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens)
from Asia. The handful of human skeletons dated over 8,000 years ago show
some regional variation, but as a group their skulls differ markedly from
the broad faces, prominent cheekbones, and round cranial vaults that
characterize modern-day American Indians. These ancient specimens have long
and narrow cranial vaults with short and relatively gracile faces. Two
examples are the 9,400-year-old Spirit Cave Man from Nevada and the most
recently discovered 8.900-year-old Kennewick Man found in Washington State
in 1996. Physical anthropologists see a greater similarity in these crania
to certain Old World populations such as Polynesians, Europeans, and the
Ainu of Japan. Only one early specimen, Wizards Beach Man, a Nevada skeleton
dated to 9,200 years ago, falls within the range of variability of
contemporary American Indians, an exception that requires further scientific
validation. Crania with American Indian morphology appears by at least 7,000
years ago.

The similarity of the ancient crania to Polynesians suggests that one early
source of migrants to the Americas was Asian circumpacific populations.
These populations were succeeded in Asia by the recent expansion of modern
Mongoloids (i.e., Koreans, Japanese, Chinese, etc.), and in America by the
ancestors of recent Native Americans. Whether individual skeletons or
specific early groups were directly related to later peoples is unknown.
Early migrants may have been replaced through competition or changed through
gene flow by later arrivals. At this time, scientists are not ruling out the
possibility of a migration from Europe.
...
Studies of the native languages of the Americas have shown them to be
extremely diverse, representing nearly two hundred distinct families, some
consisting of a single isolated language. Further research is expected to
reduce this number, but the degree of diversity is thought to have required
tens of millennia to develop through a combination of immigration into the
New World and diversification through the accumulation of normal linguistic
changes through time. Claims that these languages descend from only three
(or even fewer) separate linguistic stocks at a time depth of only a dozen
millennia are regarded by most specialists as extremely unlikely. Newer
proposals have explored deep structural affinities among American Indian
languages with circum-Pacific Old World languages. Unraveling the linguistic
history of the New World poses a highly complex set of problems that will be
under investigation for years to come.
---

> From: [mailto:genealogy-dna-
> ] On Behalf Of Al Aburto
> These two recent references refer to a "unified group" crossing the
> Bearing Strait with no support for direct Pacific or Atlantic crossings:
> http://www.psc.edu/science/Merri/merri.html
> http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090428223836.htm



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