Archiver > GENEALOGY-DNA > 2012-02 > 1330173311

From: "Ricardo Costa de Oliveira" <>
Subject: [DNA] A general estimate of the global (ethnonational) Brazilian YDNA and mtDNA:
Date: Sat, 25 Feb 2012 10:35:11 -0200

I made a general estimate of the global Brazilian Y DNA and mtDNA:

Brazilian population= 200 million

100 Million Men in Brazil
- 55% Brazilian Portuguese = 40% Colonial Hardcore - 15% Post-Independence
Immigration. (55 million men with Portuguese Surnames - 100% of the “White”
population in this category=20 million, 90% of the “Pardo”-“Mulatto”=30
million, 40% of the “Black”=5 million).
Less than 100 thousand men in Northern Portugal around the year 1000AD at
the height of the Islamic Wars in NW Iberia.
More than 400 thousand Portuguese crossed the Atlantic in the conquest and
colonization of Brazil 1500-1800.
55 million of Brazilian Portuguese Y DNA X 5 million of European Portuguese.
Ratio of 11X1 in favor to Brazil.
- 12% Italian - Post-Independence Immigration
- 8% Spanish – 2% Colonial – 6% Post-Independence Immigration. Galicia
represents more than half of the Spanish contribution.
- 5% Amerindian – Native. Concentration in Northern Brazil
- 5% African – Colonial-1850. Concentration in the Littoral.
- 5% German - Post-Independence Immigration. Concentration in the South
- 3% Arab, Lebanese, Syrian - Post-Independence Immigration
- 2% Polish - Post-Independence Immigration. Concentration in the South
- 2% Japanese - Post-Independence Immigration. São Paulo, Paraná.
- 3% Swiss, French, English ,Ukrainian and other Eastern European, Armenian,
Roma, Chinese, Jew, Others Post-Independence Immigration

100 Million Women in Brazil
-33% Amerindian
-33% Eurasian
10% Portuguese – 2% Colonial- 8% post-Independence. 10 million of Brazilian
Portuguese women X 5 million of European Portuguese. Ratio of 2X1 to Brazil.
5% Spanish
7% Italian
4% German
2% Japanese
2% Polish
1% Arab
2% Ukrainian, Swiss, French, English, Other Eastern European, Armenian,
Roma, Chinese, Jew, Others
-33% African

Fernando Henrique Cardoso: In the 19th century, because of the struggle
between Spain and Portugal, we were involved in wars in the South, and the
Brazilian empire was perceived by our neighbours as a trap. Then the axis
moved towards the United States and Brazil became a Republic and much more
quiescent—and again hesitated. To what extent would we play a hegemonic role
in the region? We never assumed such a role. We preferred to be more loved
than feared.

At the end of the last century, the economy became so vigorous, we had
established democratic traditions and we rediscovered our cultural
particularities. These give us a sense that maybe we can play a role in the
area of “soft politics”: not just to be economically strong, but also
because of our capacity to accept others, to be tolerant. We love to
consider ourselves as open-minded, as a racial democracy. It’s not entirely
true, but it’s an aspiration with some ingredients of reality. Because in
fact we are more tolerant than several other countries.

Compare the United States and Brazil. Both are countries built on migration,
but in Brazil migrants have fused much more, and what has been even more
impressive is that the cultures have mixed. We do not have a Black culture
in Brazil, and a White culture. It is senseless in Brazil to speak about a
Black culture: it is our culture.

And we are very accepting of variety in religion. We are not
intolerant—Brazilians are syncretists, not fundamentalists. And because we
are a country composed of migration we have contacts with many different
parts of the world. Lots of Brazilians are Japanese and maybe more than 10m
are Arabs. More than that are Germans; there is no other country in the
world with more Italians, in absolute numbers. And all this fused. We never
exactly know our descendancy.

Brazil has always been in favour of multilateralism, instead of bilateral
relations, and of trying to negotiate, to bridge. Brazilian diplomacy is
based on that. We need to look South, to the basin of the Rio da Plata—and
to America; both relations with America and the South. There are elements of
flexibility in Brazilian culture; they originate with the Portuguese, not
only in Brazil.

If you compare the Portuguese and the Dutch in Africa, it is quite
different. The Portuguese always had sexual relations with the native
people. There is a phrase I like to repeat when I’m in Spain. In the
eighteenth century the Marquess of Pombal [Sebastião José de Carvalho e
Melo; the first minister of the Kingdom from 1750 to 1777] sent a letter to
his brother, the viceroy of the North of Brazil, saying, we have to promote
the Portuguese who marry indigenous women, because it is better to have half
a Portuguese than one Spaniard! They were fighting the Spanish and worried
about the demographic question. They felt the children were somehow
Portuguese. That was not common in the Spanish world. They kept more

Then in Brazil, the dominant ruling class normally tried to disguise the
fact that inequality was so high. One of the ways to disguise differences is
to treat people as if they are closer than they really are, to speak as if
we were equal. To some extent this is a tricky thing, even if people are not
aware of it: it is a way to maintain differences without provoking a strong
reaction. The traditional part of the ruling class in Brazil will always be
mild, soft, always saying “please”, not ordering. This is not the same now
with the new bourgeoisie: they are much more arrogant than the old
traditional elite groups in Brazil. They are different; more capitalist.



Ricardo Costa de Oliveira

This thread: