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From: Elizabeth <>
Subject: Re: [HESSE] [Hesse] Travel in Mid 19th Century Germany
Date: Fri, 22 Jul 2011 22:13:19 +1000
References: <000601cc4408$dcbfdb90$963f92b0$@strauss@iinet.net.au><B774C7892CB24773A51F1AD9172C7A6D@Ochs>
In-Reply-To: <B774C7892CB24773A51F1AD9172C7A6D@Ochs>


Hello Tilman,

Thank you for the map sites they are great, I
will add them to my notes on this subject.

Notes on 19th Century Migration from Germany taken from several sources online.

From the mid 19th century many German emigrants
exited through the ports of Bremerhaven and
Cuxhaven. Bremerhaven was the port of Bremen when
the Bremen port was full of silt and needed
dredging. Ships could not get into Bremen.

From the 1850s emigrants boarded in Hamburg and
sailed down the Elbe estuary to Glückstadt,
anchored to take on water and supplies. By the
1870s Cuxhaven became the major immigration
centre for Hamburg. Fort Kugelbake was built in
1869 to protect Elbe shipping, it is now a museum.

Harburg was in the Kingdom of Hanover, across the
Elbe river from Hamburg. Transportation of
emigrants started 10 April 1851 (see the
Karlsruher Zeitung 16 April 1851) but never gained much importance.

"Hamburg retained its importance as a migration
port after January 1850 because of the voyage
conditions of the "Hamburg - Amerikanische
Packetfahrt - Actien - Gesellschaft" (known as HAPAG).

Passengers received free board for the duration
of their voyage to America (according to Hamburg
regulations) on a scale usual on seagoing ships
at the time. About five and a half million
Germans alone emigrated to the USA between
1816-1914."(Source: "Hamburg Porträt" 1984
publication from the Hamburg Emigration Museum)

Other German ports were primarily located along
the eastern sea board and included Stettin (now
Szczecin Poland), Gdansk (Danzig), Libau
(Russia), Memel, and Riga. Germans also used
Scandinavian ports (especially Copenhagen). The
ports in Antwerp, Belgium and Le Havre, France were popular.

However caution is advised when researching
application to migrate records. Persons could
apply to leave, but they did not necessarily
migrate to the country they nominated. Many
thousands left illegally because the of the cost
of emigration fees or because they were unable to
pay their debts before leaving. The names of
these emigrants will not be recorded. It was not
uncommon for men to leave their village of origin
and obtain employment as crew on a vessel bound for another country.

Many shipping companies employed agents who
actively canvassed specific geographic areas and
wrote up shipping contracts with prospective
emigrants. Some emigrants did not sail directly
to their destination, but chose a less expensive,
indirect route. Many emigrants departed Hamburg
for England, then they travelled by rail overland
to another British port, such as Liverpool or
Southhampton, embarked there to continue their
journey. Other indirect routes took emigrants through Le Havre and Antwerp.

Intending travellers in Europe were attracted by
advertisements placed in newspapers. Immigration
agents were also engaged in recruiting emigrants
under assisted immigration schemes. Emigrants
usually travelled by train or river boat to their
port of departure. Specific accommodation
arrangements were available on route for
passengers travelling on regular services from
the Continent to England, prior to sailing on to their ultimate destination.

These destinations varied, shipping companies
were also promoting special fares on regular
services from various European ports direct to
America or South America. There were also regular
services departing from British ports to
Australia, South Africa and New Zealand etc.

In Australia, under the NSW Government
Immigration Regulations of 7 April 1847 and 17
October 1853 a scheme allowed for 'labourer's
from the Continent of Europe' who had skills not
obtainable from Britain, for whom the government
paid bounty from the Land Fund. They had to be
married and not over the age of 50 years, they
almost all arrived as Vinedressers. Employers
intending to engage assisted migrants were
required to make application to the Colonial
Government for approval. Immigration regulations
were quite different in the Colony after the NSW
Government Assisted Scheme ceased in 1856.

In Queensland after Federation in1959 the
government introduced land orders as an incentive
to attract “desirable emigrants” with farming
skills and animal husbandry to provide for the
new settlement of Moreton Bay and beyond.

The ships sailing to Eastern Australia direct
from Hamburg between 1850-1879 also carried
'unassisted immigrants' many of whom negotiated
their own fares or private work contracts with
employers needing labourer's and farmers,
occasionally young men signed on as crew, a cost
effective way of leaving Germany.

It was not uncommon on British ships to hire
German Officers as seaman because of their
knowledge of the conditions in the Eastern North
Sea, on vessels that sailed between the continent
and England. For German seaman it was a good opportunity to earn a living,

Elizabeth
Australia

At 08:55 AM 21/07/2011, you wrote:
>Found this link with railroad line and waterway maps in Germany of the time
>in question. Unfortunately the road maps are not activated. The animation
>maps are interesting.
>http://www.ieg-maps.uni-mainz.de/maps04.htm
>
>If you go to this link
>http://www.google.de/search?sourceid=navclient&aq=7h&oq=&hl=de&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1T4GZAZ_deDE403DE404&q=reisewege+1850
>
>you come to this German report of means of travel from Mannheim (on the
>Rhine) to various seaports. Interesting are the prices for the fares and
>also the necessary food
>
>http://www.schule-bw.de/unterricht/faecheruebergreifende_themen/landeskunde/modelle/epochen/neuzeit/migration/heilbronn/m2.pdf
>
>Unfortunately it's in German, some translation programme might help (?)
>I didn't find a useful road map of that time.
>Tilman
>
>
>----- Original Message -----
>From: "Peter STRAUSS" <>
>To: <>
>Sent: Sunday, July 17, 2011 12:36 AM
>Subject: [HESSE] TRAVEL in MID 19TH CENTURY GERMANY
>
>
> > Hi Listers,
> > Can anyone suggest what means of travel my ancestors may have had
> > available
> > in the 1840's to move from Gross Zimmern to Offenbach please?
> > Also in 1854/55 they set out from Offenbach for Hamburg where they boarded
> > a ship to Australia. What means of travel would have been available?
> > Peter
> >
> > Melbourne



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