Archiver > IAFREMON > 2005-06 > 1118873783

Subject: Time Line for Pottawatomie "The Council Bluffs Sub - Agency"
Date: 15 Jun 2005 16:16:23 -0600

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Surnames: Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawatomie Indians
Classification: Lookup

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Suzanne: Over the years I have accummulated many notes relating to the Council Bluffs Sub-Agency, but I am unaware of any published article regarding this bit of Iowa history. I have written an article about Stepen Cooper (it's on file at the State Historical Society in Columbia, Missouri), about the Sioux raids on the Pottawatomies at The Council Bluffs which led to the establishment of Fort Croghan (it's on file at the State Historical Society in Des Moines, Iowa). As for the Half Breed Farms neighborhood in northwestern Fremont county, there is more right here on Rootsweb than at any other place that I am aware of.

Garraghan in his volumes regarding the Jesuits in Middle America has included some oif The Council Buffs history of the Jesuits at St. Joseph's Mission, and some of their missionary work as found in the various registers on file at St. Mary's, Kansas (which the Mormons have microfilmed.)....Richard Elliott, in his book, included his time as sub-agent at The Council Bluffs.....The National Archives at Washington, D. C., has any number of microfilm about the Council Bluffs sub-agency; one of their libraries is near Kansas City, Missouri, and I would imagine you could find these microfilm there......Also, the serial set for the United States Congress has printed expense accounts, reports, from the Council Bluffs sub-agency.


1835.--JESUITS OF THE MIDDLE UNITED STATES by Garraghan, Vol. One, page 425.--The emigration of the "Chicago Indians" began in 1835 and terminted in 1838. The entire number of Indians in the Council Bluffs sub-agency prior to 1840 was 2,734.

1837.--Billy Caldwell recalls on Sept. 27, 1839 that in 1837 a party of 15 men headed by Cham-be-ne examined the Osage Country and reported unfavorbably, "..so our chiefs decided to move to the Council Bluffs area...". Then, in 1838, another party "...most of our chiefs, went as far as Neosha River and inquired around, coming back with unfavorable information..."

August 11, 1837.--Dr. James: "The second detachment of emigrating Pottawattomies, about 75 in number, arrived in their country per steam Boat HOWARD on the 8th inst. and encamped with those who came by the KANSAS, about 2 miles above this place in a grove adjoinging a tract of fine dry prairie. This position combines more advantages than we can find in any other. Here we expect to establish the isssue house, and to be joined before many days by the main body of the nation, who have now been 23 days on the march by land from the Black Snake Hills."

August 30, 1837.--All the Pottawattomies lately resident in the Platte Purchase have arrived in their own country, except 2 or 3 who died by the way.--Edwin James, sub-agent at the Council Bluffs.

Nov. 5, 1837. Butler, Council Bluffs Sub-Agency.--Lt. Hill and James paid annuities to 2,129.....The bands known as Big Foot's (Madgzit), as Miahmees, and as Pah de go shucks, and other totaling more than 1000, emigrated at their own expense. Their numbers are increasing every day by parties coming in from the Des Moines, the Mississippi and elsewhere.--Dr.Edwin James.

February 15, 1838. Sub-Agency of The Council Bluffs at Caldwell's Upper Missouri: The 1/2 breeds have timber cut ready for the sub-agent's house.

March 19, 1838.--COUNCIL BLUFFS AGENCY LETTERS. Roll 215.--Dr. James was notified May 19, 1838 that he was being transferred to the Osage sub-agency. John Dougherty on Apr. 1, 1838 started as the "acting sub-agent".

May 29, 1838.--House for sub-agent hasn't been erected, although the logs have been cut and are at Mr. Papin's trading house which is 500 yards below Bellevue.

May 18, 1839.--Stephen Cooper accepts sub-agent position. There are no buildings there for his family's shelter.

June 17, 1839.--Cooper will live in a building adjoining Mr. Hardin, which is now occupied by Capt. Gantt.

Oct. 12, 1840.--The temporary buildings for the sub-agency are one mile east of the mouth of the Platte.--Stephen English, sub-agent.

January 23, 1841.--Cooper says Major Pilcher's clerk, Mr. Hafferty, brought up the annuities "in the fall".

August 31, 1841.--Secretary of War directs that Deaderick of Checks X Roads, Jefferson county, Tennessee, be appointed sub-agent, vice Stephen Cooper.

August 22, 1841.--Governor John Chambers, Burlington, Iowa Territory: The Pottawattomies, exasperated by the frequent attacks of the Sioux upon them, are stirring up a crusade against these people....Have five Sioux scalps.....On Aug. 31, 1841, Fort Crawford says Fort Leavenworth is closer to the Pottawattomies.

Sept. 28, 1841.--Deaderick has received his commission as the Council Bluffs sub-agent, dated Sept. 2, 1841.

Nov. 8, 1841.--D. D. Mitchell, St. Louis, Supt. of Indian Affairs, has temporarily assigned Major Cummins as the Council Bluffs sub-agent because Deaderick has never reported.

December 9, 1841.--Major Cummins has no funds with which to pay accounts for the Council Bluffs sub-agency, which arise from 1841 annuity payments.

January 4, 1842.--James W. Deaderick will start tomorrow for his post from Checks Cross Roads, per order.

February 24, 1842.--Deaderick arrived at the sub-agency on Feb. 8, 1842. Mitchell grants him leave from Feb. 21, 1842 to April 21, 1842 so he may bring up his family.

June 25, 1842.--Deaderick did not return from his furlough in Tennessee. (A note on the back says "Must be removed".)

July 20, 1842.--Removal notice arrived at St. Louis but yesterday and Deaderick has started for Council Bluffs on the HUNTSVILLE. He is to remain at his post until Luce replaces him. Letter to him will be sent by a boat leaving tomorrow.

Aug. 9, 1842.--Deaderick is still at the sub-agency.....speaks of the presence of the Dragoons.

Aug. 19, 1842.--Mitchell says Deaderick is a near relative of Davis Harden.

September 30, 1842.--Mitchell ordered Miller to come to St. Louis August 22, 1842 in order to pick up the Pottawattomie's annuities and to deliver them, since the sub-agency post is unfilled.

1842.--John B. Luce submitted the Council Bluff's sub-agency's 1842 Fourth Quarter accounts.

Dec. 1, 1842.--John B. Luce is shown as the sub-agent.

March 31, 1843.--St. Louis received accounts up to March 31, 1843 for the Council Bluffs sub-agency from John B. Luce.

Mar. 25, 1843.--Elliott, of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, has received a letter and accepts the appointment as Council Bluffs sub-agent.

May 31, 1843.--Elliott arrived at the sub-agency on May 31, 1843...and....received the property of the sub-agency from Captain Burgwin of Fort Croghan.

Oct. 16, 1843.--Elliott is in Washington, D. C.; has one room and kitchen to his house at the Council Bluffs sub-agency completed and has a carpenter at work on the rest.

August 1844.--Thomas H. Harvey, St. Louis Superintendent of Indian Affairs, made the annual annuity payment at the Council Bluffs sub-agency.

Sept. 16, 1844.--During the last winter, the Omahas came down on their neighbors, (the Pottawatomies,) and committed numerous thefts, and for which they offered no other apology than that they were driven to it by necessity, as the nation were starving. The Pottawatomies, sympathizing with their situation, made them presents to get them away.

Sept. 26, 1844.--The best time to open a negotiation would be about the first of June. The whole nation is present then.

Oct. 4, 1844.--Richard Elliott purchased a set of buildings to be used as the sub-agency from Peter A. Sarpy, who was an assignee of Papin & Robidoux....."They were erected for trading houses, and comprise two dwelling apartments, two kitchens, and three store rooms.".....Buildings were known as Papin & Robidoux's trading houses at Point aux Poules, and that they were worth the price paid is certified by Pearson & Cooper, O. G. Fleming, F. V. Tazon, Thomas A. S. MacDonald, Reuben Hildreth, Edward Poor and L. LaFromboise.

September 24, 1847.--There are 5 licensed traders located in the Council Bluffs sub-agency at Point aux Poules:
1.--Sarpy & Co.; St. Louis license dated 7/8/1847
2.--Ewing & Co.; St. Louis license dated 7/16/1847
3.--Benoist & Co.; St. Louis license dated 7/22/1847
4.--Peltier & Co.; Council Bluffs sub-agency license dated 7/22/1847.
5.--John H. Whitehead; Council Bluffs sub-agency license dated 10/19/1836.

Oct. 11, 1847.--Council Bluffs Sub-Agency. Thomas Harvey says all the Pottawatamies will be under way to their new homes by tomorrow. Will rendezvous near the state line and determine where to cross the Missouri river. Capt. Craig and company of volunteers to keep order. Have 7 white men under guard for gambling. Tomorrow, he will sell tools, buildings, and will rent the mill.

October 13, 1847.--COUNCIL BLUFFS INDIAN AGENCY LETTERS. Roll 217.--Bill of sale at the Council Bluffs sub-agency dated Oct. 13, 1847 showing the agency buildings bringing $15 at this public sale.....items of iron and steel....Total sales: $152.45.

Nov. 30, 1847.--The Pottawatomies at The Council Bluffs had been allowed from July 23, 1846 to July 23, 1848 to remove and be re-united with the Osage Pottawatomies on their reservation on the Kansas River. Only a band on the Des Moines remain in Iowa. The Sac and Fox band that stopped at the Council Bluffs Pottawatomies have also removed.

Dec. 17, 1847.--Harvey says chiefs Jos. LaFromboise, Pierre LeClerc and Op te gu shick (Half a Day) were most co-operative in urging early removal to the Kansas reserve.

July 3, 1848.--Agent Miller at Council Bluffs deposited $254 from rent of the Pottawattomie Mill at the Old Council Bluffs sub-agency. (N.B.: By July 1849, the Council Bluffs agency at Bellevue, Nebraska, was being called the "Council Bluffs Sub-Agency".---W.F.)

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