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From: "patrick best" <>
Subject: [METISGEN-L] re: Jocko Finlay info
Date: Fri, 15 Feb 2002 22:34:51 +0000


Dear Listers,

Today, I have more time on my hands so I am web searching for information
and I came across another part of our history. It is interesting to read and
I hope that you enjoy it all.

Patrick Best


JACQUES RAPHAEL FINLAY (a Metis)
by David Charles Courchane

Jacques Raphael Finlay was born in 1768 in Finlay Fort, on the south
bank of the Saskatchewan River. Finlay Fort was located at or near Nipawin
Rapids, about fifty miles below the forks of the North branch and the South
branch of the Saskatchewan River. James Finlay, a Nor'wester, was his
father, and a Chippewa Indian woman his mother. The elder Finlay was in
charge of Finlay Fort at the time.

From "Jacques Raphael Finlay", Jacob A. Meyers, Washington Historical
Quarterly, Vol.X; #3; June 1919, page 163:
"David Douglas, the botanist, preserves the true name of this primary
pioneer of the Columbia River Basin; he being equal if not prior to Lewis
and Clark; although probably preceded by Lagasse and LaBlanc of the
North-West Company, in 1800-01...Douglas speaks of him as a Sauteur. His
name is variously spelt in the records of him, Jacco, Jaccot, Jacko, Jocko,
Jacquot, but not often as Jacques, the correct form."

In 1794 Jacques Finlay, or "Jocko" Finlay, was in charge of Upper Bow
Fort, a North West Company spot, on the south fork of the Saskatchewan
River, "situated some where near Gardepui's Crossing, near Duck Lake",
according to David Thompson's biographer, J. B. Tyrrel. About 1000 yards
away from Upper Bow Fort was a Hudson's Bay Company post called South Branch
House. In June of 1794 this place was attacked by Indians, plundered and
eight of the nine inhabitants killed. Some accounts say the attackers were
Sioux, or Gros Ventres. John McDonald of Garth wrote in his REMINISCENCES
in 1798, "They killed all the men, and pillaged all the goods in the
Hudson's Bay fort, excepting one person, a clerk who hid himself in the
cellar amongst some rubbish; and then attacked our fort. They were beaten
off, and several killed. Our fort was in charge of one Jaccot Finlay, a man
of courage." Some accounts put the number of attacking Indians at 150
warriors. "Jaccot Finlay and the Cree Beau Parlez, met the assailants with
a crash of musketry. Then dashing out they rescued the Hudson's Bay man,
launched their canoes by night and were glad to escape with their lives down
the Bow to old Chesterfield House at Red Deer River." ("The Conquest of the
Great Northwest", Agnes C. Laut, Moffat, Yard and Co., 1911; pp 50-51.)

Another trader, Daniel William Harmon, had this to say of the battle, "After
they (the Sioux) had taken out of the fort, all the property which they
could conveniently carry away with them, they set fire to the fort, and
proceeded to the establishment of the North West Company, which was two
hundred rods distant from that of the Hudson's Bay people, with the
intention of treating it in a similar manner. The fort gates had,
providentially been shut previously to the approach of the Indians. There
were in the fort three men and several women and children. They took their
stations in the block-houses and bastions, and when the natives had come
sufficiently near, fired upon them. The Indians instantly returned the
fire, and the contest was continued until night approached." (Meyers,
p.164) Fur trader, Peter Fidler, recorded that three men (Magnus Annel,
Hugh Brough, and William Fea), one woman, and two children had been murdered
in the attack at South Branch House. He also stated that two women were
carried away as slaves, and that the men under Jocko had killed and wounded
14 of the attackers. The clerk saved by Jocko that day was named Vandereil,
and he soon fled to York Factory to report the news.

In 1796 Jocko was put in charge of Fort des Prairies, located where
present day Edmonton, Alberta now stands. "In Roderic Mckenzie's list of
Proprietors, Clerks, etc., Jocko is listed as Jacques Raphael, at 1200
livres (a livres was then worth 18-1/2 cents) and among the highest paid
employees of the North West Company. This is the older company of 1799. In
the new company's list of 1804, he is listed as Jacques Raphael and
commissioned clerk. Both of these are at Fort des Prairies, which was the
Rocky Mountain depot of the company." (Meyers, p.164) While at Fort des
Prairies he built and managed several posts east of the Rockies.

In 1806 John McDonald of Garth sent Jocko from Rocky Mountain House up
the Saskatchewan to find a way over the Rockies. He was instructed to build
an outpost and to construct canoes and paddles for David Thompson to use
when that man came up to that point the next year. Jocko's outpost was on
the Kootenay Plain, near the headwaters of the Saskatchewan River. There he
wintered in 1806-07, and perhaps even earlier. This post was abandoned in
1807, when Thompson finally advanced westward. The Piegan Blackfeet had
blocked Thompson's way temporarily. But he managed to slip by them when
they became preoccupied with news to the south, concerning the bloody
encounter between the Lewis and Clark Expedition and their Blackfeet
kinsmen. Moving west, Thompson built Kootenae House at the headwaters of
the Columbia River. Thompson described Kootenae House as "log houses", which
were "strongly stockaded" on three sides, "the other side resting on the
steep bank of the river...The stockades were all ball proof, as well as the
logs of the houses." Kootenae House was known to the North West Company
officers east of the mountains as "Old Fort Kootenae" to distinguish it from
other posts established on the on the Kootenay River, south of the 49th
parallel of latitude, one near Bonner's Ferry, Idaho, --- and a later one
opposite Jennings, Montana. The post was about one mile northwest of
Athalmer, where the Columbia River leaves Lake Windemere flowing north and
one fourth mile north of Toby Creek. ("David Thompson's Narrative", edited
by J.B. Tyrrell, Greenwood Press, reprint 1968, footnote, page 375)

>From THE FUR TRADE IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN PRIOR TO 1811 - T.C.Elliot,
HQ, Vol. IV, No.1 - Jan.1915, page 5:
"Tobey Creek, following eastward from the glaciers of Mt.Nelson of the
Selkirk Range, enters the Columbia River from the west about one mile below
the outlet of Lake Windermere in the political division of British Columbia
known as the East Kootenay District. Upon an open gravelly point over
looking Tobey Creek and "a long half mile" (quoting from David Thompson's
original survey notes) from the Columbia stood the stockade and buildings
marking the beginning of commerce in the interior of "Old
Oregon"......"Kootenae House, was the name given to this trading post.....
Here David Thompson spent the fall, winter and spring of 1807-08 with Finan
McDonald & six servants...He found bands of wild horses roamimg over the
hills and caught some of them...."

>From David Thompson's Journals (transcription by Jack Nisbet):
Nov.19,1806: "Abt.3 PM, Mr. Quesnel, Jaco Finlay, Jos.Daniel, Bercier &
Boulard arrived from the mountains."
Jocko found a way over the Rockies with the help of the Kootenai Indians,
through a pass later named Howse Pass, after the Hudson's Bay Company
trader, Joseph Howse, who had used it a year or so later. "Jaco was sent
ahead over Howse Pass and crossed the Rockies where he located a stream
flowing west, which the Indians informed him was a tributary of the Columbia
River. So he blazed the trees and returned to Rocky Mountain House and the
waiting party of six men who immediately moved westward under the direction
of Thompson and (Finan) McDonald. Thompson was accompanied by his wife on
this trip. The Blaeberry River, which was the stream found by Jaco, flows
into the Columbia just where it takes a great bend northward near the C.P.R.
stations of Moberly and Golden, about 180 miles north of Cranbrook", British
Columbia. ("Spokane Daily Chronicle" news article, Spokane, Washington)

"Finally, on June 25," David Thompson and his party, "were able to
struggle with horses across the pass to Jaco's trail. About forty miles
long, it proved so steep and narrow they could scarcely negotiate it.
Furiously Thompson wrote `It is the opinion of every Man with me, as well as
mine that Jaco Finlay ought to lose at least half of his wages for having so
much neglected the Duty for which he was so expressly engaged at 150 pounds
pr. year, besides a Piece of Tobacco & sugar, & a Clerk's Equipment.' On
top of that they discovered that, because Jaco had not properly sheltered
the canoes he had built, the whole job had to be done over." ("Winner Take
All", David Lavender, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1977, p. 296)
"They had found that mice and porcupines had feasted on Finlay's birchrind
canoe and Mrs. Thompson helped the men sew a new covering for the craft that
was to carry them down to the Blaeberry junction with the Columbia." ("The
Original Northwester David Thompson and the Native Tribes of North America",
Rowland Bond, Spokane House Enterprises, Nine Mile Falls, Washington,
1970-71, p.61)

>From David Thompson's Journals (Jack Nisbet):
"Mar 24, 1807 Jaco arrived with his woman and two children from the
mountains.

How Jocko reacted when he heard from David Thompson about his work on
the trail and the canoes, isn't known. But not long after he is known to
have become a free trapper and went on his own way. A cut in pay could have
caused a rift between him and the North West Company. This may be the
reason he turned to the Hudson's Bay Company trader, Joseph Howse, to be
outfitted during the following seasons of 1808-09 and 1809-10. It does seem
that Jocko dealt with both Thompson and Howse in 1809, as Thompson's Journal
shows. And he seems to have camped with his family in the area. "This is
the year (1810 Finlay was on Jocko or Jacques Creek, in the Flathead
Reservation, Montana, which took his name." Among places named after Jocko
on this reservation are Jocko River, Jocko Valley, Jocko Prairie, and Jocko
Mountain Range. It was the ruins of his house that Alexander Ross saw in
1823-4. This cabin was located near the present day Ray Rugg place, one
mile south of Ravalli, Montana. "There is no reason to believe that Joseph
Howse's party of the Hudson's Bay Company came further south than the north
end of Flathead Lake, unless Finlay was engaged by Howse for the season of
1809-10. Howse first came across the pass in 1809 on a scouting trip, and
with a strong party for trading in the Fall of 1810." (Meyers, page 164)
>From Sam John's THE PIONEERS, Vol.1, page 48: "Jocko River Was Named For
Jacques Raphael Finlay, One Of The Earliest Fur Traders To Cross The
Mountains"--Gladys Mayo--"Travelers on highway 3, west of Missoula find that
for a considerable distance west of the town of Arlee their route follows
the course of the Jocko River, a tributary of the Clark Fork. Not many who
pass that way know that this river was named in honor of one of the first
traders to pass through this area. His name was Jacques Raphael Finlay, and
some reputable historians are of the opinion that he was in western Montana
as early as 1800, four years before Lewis and Clark passed this way."

From David Thompson's 1809 Journal (Book 23; microfilm transcripts by
Jack Nisbet. Jocko and his family are camped in the north and Thompson
writes:
Jack Nisbet writes concerning this year of the journals--"..I sent you
this year because it starts with Jaco showing everybody up with his
wild-horse catching prowess, goes on to his adoption of Lussier's children,
and finishes with the Piegans robbing perhaps some of those same horses from
Jaco and his family." Jack also said that the events of 1809 were played out
between Kootenae Plains and Tobacco Plains & Jocko's camp was usually
between Blaeberry & Kootenae House
12 Jan.1809 "Jaco decamped to the northd.."
On the 19th Thompson sent out some of his men and the Kootenais as horse
catchers, after wild horses called "marrons"--it was a "a snowy morning" and
none were caught.
On the 25th Jocko came into camp for a gun "which he got & went away- he
has now taken 10 marrons" and on the 28th Thompson wrote," Jaco has now 18
taken." And then Jocko must have been away for a week or so as Thompson
writes on Feb.19,1809--"Jaco & his two Seauteaux paid us a visit."
With David Thompson was a voyageur named Lussier (possibly Basile
Lussier), whose wife became ill or injured and eventually died. Thompson
writes on April 24, 1809, "..passed a sad night with Lussier's wife who is
dying."......Then on the 24th.."Tues. A fine day. At 2 AM it pleased Heaven
that Lussier's wife should depart this Life--she left 4 small Children--the
youngest only 6 months old, which much distresses me. At 1 PM the ? men
returned & we buried the poor woman & take the best care we can of her
children." There were several Lussiers in the fur trade.
Three days later Thompson and his party broke camp and later camped at
"the Plains of Horses"--here before they departed Thompson took the time to
plant a turnip garden. (Was this a reference to Plains, Montana?)
On May 1, 1809- he wrote"...in the evening came to Jaco & family with
whom we left the children of Lussier's deceased woman--we camped for the
night..." As Thompson mentions Lussier later in his journals he must have
looked in on the children from time to time. One wonders what became of them
---did they become known later as Finley's?
The next day, "...caught 5 small mullet & had a shoulder of a Red Deer
(Elk) from Jaco,but the animal had been run so much by the Dogs that the
meat is not eatable."
May 20, 1809 "Sat.--A fine morng, but squally afternoon. At 7 1/2 AM set
off & at 11 AM arrived at Jaco's where we put up--the large Canoes will
still take 3 days of fine weather to finish there. rainy evening." The
weather was cold. On May 22th, "A fine day on the whole, but a cold wind &
squally--Jaco timbered up a canoe & gummed it--" Next day "A fine day but as
usual water froze in the night--Jaco got the other Canoe down & gummed
--they are both badly made in the Bottom & not likely to last any time
without being quickly repaired."
Four days later Thompson wrote."Early set off for meat & each man
returned with a load of Horse meat or Chev (deer)- The Horse meat has a fine
appearance & is preferred by all of them to the poor chev. At 1 PM set off &
went down to the Horse Plains--where we set ashore 2 Iroquois & Bercier to
look for the Herd of Mares--which they found & took down to Jaco's
Campment...."
On May 27th, "..."passed Jaco's campment at 7 3/4 AM put ashore &
arranged for their Furrs. Jaco paid 1/2 Beavers & traded 6 do in
Rum--Pembook 22 paid & 1 Bear in Rum--? 12 skins paid---" (This Pembook may
be the same person as Pembuck brother to Forsin- the known brother-in-law of
Jocko. D.Thompson had made note of him on May 8th, "Pembook & his wife
passed, they gave me 1 Beaver 2 Sies a Brisket with a little dried meat--"
and on May 30th "1 pint (Rum) to Pembook on credit." Pembook stayed and
hunted for Thompson after the May 27th meeting).
July 30, 1809-"Sunday. A Cloud morng, but fair day 'till 2 PM then heavy
thunder & rain. At 5 1/2 AM set off & held on 'till 2 PM when we camped with
bad weather above a bad rapid, a Point above the Brook of Jaco."
Aug.9th,-" Early today met the young Seauteaux who informed us that Jaco
& all the Family had been robbed of all their Horses & the major part of
their property by a Band of Peagans 14 days ago & that Jaco & his Family was
on their way hereto---".
At Dog Campment on August 11, 1809 -"..at 5 3/4 PM where we put up
--stopped about 40' with Jaco when we met him & his family-whom we
accommodated with Horses &C they returned with us...." Three days later he
"went off" with the Iroquois---
On the 17th--".....to the old Hoard--at the Hoard breakfasted with Jaco-
1 3/4 H--Bellaire came up to us--7 1/4 PM put up at the Hawks Nest--Jaco
came up to us having speared 10 Salmon--2 of them tolerable the others
meagre.."
Aug.19, 1809 "Jaco killed a good salmon in the Lake...Jaco killed
another good salmon...at 7 1/4 PM we camped at the weir all in company--a
fine day."
Aug.20, 1809 "A cloudy morng & as usual very smoky----Jaco killed a good
doe Red Deer..(elk)."
Aug.21, 1809--"We also wait for the Horsemen with Jaco's things--who are
not yet arrived..In the evening abt 8 PM all the men & Horses arrived with
Jaco's baggage that he left in a Hoard--we crossed over the men & they
camped with us. A rainy night."
On the 28th, "...we embarked & ran down to the place a little above the
large Brook on the right below-McDonald's Rivulet & camped at 6 1/4 PM -havg
in this Time waited near 2 1/2 Hours for Jaco & Family..."

>From Washington Historical Quarterly, Vol.XI, #2, April 1920, "David
Thompson's Journey in Idaho", (Journal Sept. 1809) T.C. Elliot---At
Kullyspell House September 21, 1809-Thursday---"In the evening Jaco & Family
arrived" T.C. Elliot states in footnote 12, "a half-breed who with his
family had been residing among the Saleesh and other Indians as a free
Trapper for at least two years prior to this time."

In October of 1809 David Thompson and his men made a 200 mile trip
through the wilderness, he wrote, "We were all of us very hungry having had
but little on the road; there were some Indians near us, of whom we tried to
buy a horse for food, our own were too poor to be eaten, and we fasted
excepted for a chance Goose or Duck amongst us; until the 14th, when Jaco, a
fine half-breed arrived and relieved us. From him we traded twenty-eight
Beaver tails, forty pounds of Bear meat, and thirty pounds of dried meat,
and now we all, thank God enjoyed a good meal." (Tyrell, p.375) Jocko had
come up from his camp on the Jocko river. Thompson had with him, Finan
McDonald, James McMillan, and a voyageur, possibly Michel Bordeaux or Jean
Baptiste Boucher, and was camped in two teepees with a log shanty warehouse
as his headquarters for trade, at a location near present day Libby,
Montana. Thompson and his men had been on the Kootenai River bartering with
the Pend d'Oreille Indians when they had run out of rations, and were very
near starvation. Shortly after meeting Jocko, they began to build Flathead
Post.

"Soon a large band of Salish or Pend d'Oreille Indians who had been
across the mountains hunting bison visited Thompson's post, and a bountiful
supply of food was assured..... Finlay apparently had traded and explored
the tributaries of the Clark Fork for many miles above Salish House, and had
given Thompson some description of it." (THE FUR TRADE, Vol.II, Paul C.
Phillips, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1961, page 288.)

From THE JOURNAL OF ALEXANDER HENRY THE YOUNGER 1799-1814-edited by
Barry M.Gough-The Champlain Society, Toronto, 1992,pp 427 & 485:
".....A Saulteaux arrived with his Wife from the South Branch, on his
way to join his Beau frere J[aco].F[inlay]. at the Rocky Mountains. But
those present troublesome times will cause him to remain here at least for
some time......." Could this be Pembuck, Jaco's brother-in-law?
There was a brook that Alexander Henry the Younger called Jacquco'Brook.
It was Jaco's, Jacco's,or Jacko's Brook, according to Thompson, who also
called it North Brook. It is a small branch of the Saskatchewan River, lying
in the mountains above Rocky Mountain House and below the Kootenay Plains.
Henry refers to it later when he approaches the Continental Divide. This
creek was probably named for Jaco Finlay, perhaps the earliest trader to go
this way into the headwaters of the Columbia River."

In the spring of 1810 Jocko was again with Thompson with his old
position as clerk and interpreter. By that summer he and Finan McDonald
were among the Spokane Indians. "The Spokanes welcomed McDonald and Finlay,
as they had welcomed the previous Sama. The Spokanes called all Frenchmen
"Sama", because the French had been the first white men in their lands.
Finlay did little to change this illusion, for he spoke French, carried
Indian blood in his veins, and took an Indian wife. McDonald the
"pugnacious Celt", was built to be noticed, standing six feet four inches.
His bushy beard and flowing red hair, which matched his temperament, had a
somewhat frightening effect on them..... No one knows which of these two men
selected the site of the post, about a half-mile up the Spokane River from
its junction with the Little Spokane, situated in the land of the Upper and
Middle Spokanes'. It is 9 or 10 miles from the present city of Spokane,
Washington. ("The Spokane Indians", Robert H. Ruby & John A. Brown,
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1970, page 38.)

Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown, noted Central Washington historians
write that Jocko was the "likely builder of the post, which, like him, was
unpretentious, consisting of not more than two or three cabins, a warehouse
to store trade goods and furs, and one or two structures for living
quarters. In all likelihood the buildings were not much different from
those of Kullyspell House, hurriedly built of logs chinked with mud or clay,
since tools and such materials as nails were very scarce." (Ruby & Brown,
p.38) "Spokane House had been in operation nearly two years when the
Pacific Fur Company built a rival post, Fort Spokane, a half mile from it.
The two posts competed with each other for less than a year, at which time
the Northwesters acquired all Astorian holdings for a mere pittance..."
"Neglected Spokane House", Jerome A. Peltier, "The Pacific Northwester",
Vol.5, #3, Summer 1961, page 33.

"By the spring of 1810 Thompson had distributed more than twenty guns
and a hundred iron arrowheads among the western natives, and in the summer
of that year a band of 150 Flatheads and Nez Perces, some with guns, met a
Piegan war party on the plains and for the first time used the new weapon in
battle. The Piegans recoiled in fury and during the winter, when Thompson
had gone east for supplies, they blocked the pass he normally used, forcing
him to return to the Columbia Basin by a more northerly route. In his
absence in the east, two of his men, Finan McDonald and Jaco Finlay, had
built a new post, the Spokane House, about ten miles northwest of the
present Washington city of that name, and had traded more guns to Spokane,
Kalispels, and Nez Perce in the area. ("The Nez Perce Indians and the
Opening of the Northwest", Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., University of Nebraska
Press, Lincoln & London, 1979, page 37) Thompson came south by way of the
Kootenay and Pend d'Oreille Rivers from the headwaters of the Columbia with
trade goods to supply his posts. "Thompson in his NARRATIVE says: On the
14th (June, 1811) we arrived at the Spokane House on the River of that name,
where I left a small assortment of Goods to continue the trade, there were
forty tents of Spokane Indians, with Jaco, a halfbreed, as clerk." This was
Thompson's first visit at Spokane House. In the geographical notes, under
date of August 6th, 1811, at the mouth of the Snake River, he notes: "Wrote
a letter to Jacco Finlay to send and meet us with horses, etc." (NOTE: Did
Jocko know how to read? If not why would David Thompson write him a letter
unless Thompson actually sent a messenger to Jocko, as Rowland Bond states.
David Douglas said he did not know how to speak English, unless Jocko was
pulling Douglas' leg. As a clerk in the Northwest Company he must have had
some knowledge of the three R's.) On the 13th of the same month his entry
is: "A very fine day. At 5-1/2 A.M. set off and at 6-1/2 A.M. arrived at
the house. Thank God for his mercy to us on this journey. Found all safe
but Jacco was with the horses sent to meet us. Late in the evening he
arrived." Thompson had used the trails by the way of the Sink of Deep Creek
and Jaco the main road by the way of Coulee Creek Crossing further west. On
November 11th the same year, we find, on leaving Spokane House for
Kullyspell and Saleesh Posts: "Left Coxe & Paul the Iroquois with Jacque
Finlay." On the 14th of that month, Michel Kinville, who was in charge of
Lake Indian House, on Kootenay River, was ordered to abandon that post, and
move the goods to the Skeetsoo River (Spokane House). According to
Thompson's NARRATIVE, this post Lake Indian House, was established by Finan
McDonald in the fall of 1807. This would be the first white residence in
Idaho. (Meyers, p.165 and David Thompson's Narrative p.465)

In a letter on 4 May 1812 to Donald McGillis from Alexander Ross:
"P.S.
Should Mr. Jacques Finlay arrive here and wish for a small assortment of
goods to trade for the good of the Pacific Fur Co. you will please let him
have 8 half ones & 4 small and also a small assortment of most things in the
store/liqueur excepted, and take his receipts, for the time use him well
while here; & there, is goin in the ? a little of which can be sued with ? ?
?
Your's as above
(signed) Alex Ross"

"Received of Mr. Donald McGillis, the following Goods--8 Half and 4 Small,
etc. etc. to layout in the Indian trade for the interest & good of the
P.F.C. duly received by me.
(signed) Jacque Finlay"

This receipt is in a different penmanship than that of the rest of the
letter and postscript, and was in all probability written and signed by
Jocko.

Jocko was in charge at Spokane House until sometime in 1812. That place
was called the first commercial effort in the present state of Washington by
one writer. Using Spokane House as a sort of base camp, Jocko and his
family would make frequent trapping forays throughout the neighboring
countryside.

Alexander Ross, in his book, FUR HUNTERS OF THE FAR WEST, wrote an
interesting story concerning Jocko's cool-headedness. Two Nor'westers,
James Keith and Alexander Stuart were returning eastward to Fort William,
North West Company headquarters, with the annual east-bound express, when
tragedy confronted them. Ross wrote, "The journey began and went on well
enough till they arrived at the portage of the Cascades (near Bonneville
Dam, WA.),the first impediment was in ascending the river, distant 180 miles
from Fort George, here the Indians collected in great numbers, as usual; but
did not attempt anything until the people had got involved and dispersed in
the portage; they then seized the opportunity, drew their bows, brandished
their lances, and pounced upon the gun cases, powder, kegs, and bales of
goods, at the place where Mr. Stuart was stationed. He tried to defend his
post, but owing to the wet weather his gun miss fired several times, and
before any assistance could reach him, he had received three arrows; his gun
had just fallen from his hands, as a halfbreed, named Finlay, came up and
shot his assailant dead: By this time the people concentrated, and the
Indians fled to their strongholds among the rocks and trees......During this
time Mr. Stuart suffered severely and was very low, as his wounds could not
be examined. And when this was done they discovered that the barbs of the
arrows were of iron, and one of them had struck on a stone pipe which he
carried in his waistcoat pocket, which fortunate circumstance he perhaps
owed his life." ("The Fur Hunters of the Far West", Alexander Ross, edited
by Kenneth Spaulding, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1956, p.12.)
Jacob Meyers, early day historian, thought that the "half-breed, named
Finlay", was probably a son of Jocko's, but the following clears up any
doubt.

John McDonald of Garth tells this of the incident, "a couple of canoes
with a dozen men" (Alexander Ross wrote that it was 20 men in two boats),
were stopped and attacked by the Indians at Cascades, speaking of Stuart he
said, "Before any assistance could reach him his gun had fallen from his
hand. When an Indian tried to dispatch Stewart, Jocko shot the assailant
dead-." B.C. Payette in his book, OREGON COUNTRY, shows that Jocko Finlay
was in canoe #1 with John McDonald and "Perpetual Motion" Donald Mckenzie,
on that particular brigade. Rowland Bond, author of EARLY BIRDS IN THE
NORTHWEST, also believes it was Old Jocko, instead of one of the younger
Finlays.

Found in "The Oregon Country Under the Union Jack", B.C. Payette, Payette
Radio Limited, Montreal, 1961:
"List of People in the Columbia for Winter 1813/14--extracted from HBC
Archives F4/61, Fos.6-7d:
#53 Finlay, Jac. Rap. - clerk & interpreter at Spokane House
#54 Finlay, Rap. Jun. - interpreter & hunter at Fort George
#55 Finlay, Thorburn - m. & hunter at Fort George
#56 Finlay, Bonhomme - m. & hunter at Spokane House"
#54 Raphael, Junior was either that son of Jocko who became known as Miquam(
or Jocko), or his older brother James, who was born in 1794.
But who were Thornburn and Bonhomme?

>From Jacques-Raphael Finlay by Eric J. Holmgren, pp253-254:
"In 1819 he participated in the Snake River country expeditions south of
the Columbia River, led by Nor'Wester Donald McKenzie. At the union of the
NWC and the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821 neither his name nor those of his
sons appeared on the rolls of the HBC, which would indicate that at that
time he was probably a free trader and trapper. In mid October 1824 Finlay,
the leader of a group of freeman who were watching the Shuswhap (Salish)
Indians near Jasper House (Alta) in order to intercept their furs they
reached the HBC posts...."

Sir George Simpson, Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay Company in
America, met Jocko at Jasper's House in 1824, while he was trading with the
Shuswape Indians. Simpson wrote, "Jacco Findlay and a band of followers
(Freemen) were here watching the Shuswapes in order that they might trade
their furs before they got to the Establishment and thereby make a profit on
the hunts of these poor Indians, but I gave them notice that that practice
must be discontinued as we should not allow freemen to interfere with and
impose on the Natives & I addressed a circular Letter to Messrs. Clarke,
McIntosh, Rowland, and Laroque begging they would narrowly watch the conduct
of Findlays band and if they did continue this nefarious Traffick (as from
timidity and the late unprovoked hostilities against these Natives they are
become an easy prey) that no supplies of any description to be given to
them. These freemen are a pest in this country, having much influence over
the Natives which they exert to our disadvantage by inciting them against
us, but if such measure as I have recommended to those gentlemen are
followed up they will soon be quite at our disposal as their very existence
depends on us and were more firm and decided conduct observed to freemen
generally throughout
the Country it would be much to our interest as their present independence
and high tones importance is very injurious and in my opinion frought with
danger to the concern." ("Fur Trade and Empire", George Simpson's Journal;
Frederick Merk, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1968,
p.12) Jocko was 56 years old when he was seen by Sir George Simpson.

>From Jacques Raphael Finlay by Eric J. Holmgren:
" Perhaps in order to watch Finlay's activities, but probably also to
benefit from his experiences, Peter Skene Ogden, referring to him as
Keyachie Finlay, included him among the freeman and HBC servants who left
Flathead Post (Mont.) for the Snake River country in December 1824." (note
from Chalk: I don't know Holmgrens reasoning for this or his proof that
Keyachie was Old Jaco, as some of his sons among them a James, and a Jacques
were all active in the fur trade at this time.)

John Work's Field Journal under the date of February 25, 1826, says,
"Campment de Bindash (on Spokane Plains near Trent, WA) with J. Finlay's
sons who were hunting, fortunately we fell in with them or we would have had
little fire during the night." On August 3, 1826, months later Work again
writes, "We had separated the horses and took those for Fort Colville across
the river (Spokane), and breakfasting and trading some salmon from old
Finlay." (Meyers, p.166)

Jocko was known as the only gunsmith in the Spokane country, and
botanist David Douglas traveled out of his way in 1826 to have him look at
his gun. Douglas wrote two accounts of his meeting with Jocko Finlay, "A
Sketch of a Journey to the North-Western Parts of the Continent of North
America During the Years 1824, 1825, 1826, 1827" tells this version: "Mr.
Dease kindly gave me the use of three of his best horses and engaged two
hunters to attend me to Spokane, distance about seventy miles in a northerly
direction from this spot (Kettle Falls), which was his former residence. On
May 2nd (1826) I set out for that purpose and traveled slowly, finding the
country interesting, and arrived late on the third day. Mr. Jacques Finlay
was here, and obligingly undertook to repair the lock of my gun, and on this
occasion I felt happy in having it in my power to give him some assistance
in provisions. For several days he had had nothing except a sort of cake
made of Lichen jubatum, Linn., and a few roots of Scilla esculenta and of
Lewisia redivia. I spent a few days here and returned to Kettle Falls on
Sunday the 14th......One large bear, Ursus horribilis, was killed by young
Finlay; it was too bulky to be preserved." The latter two food items
mentioned above were camas and bitterroot. From: PNWQ; July 1948; Spokane
House State Park; p.194; "Lichen Jubatum was black moss on the pine trees.
It was baked on hot stones wrapped in a layer of grass and covered with dirt
while it baked. David Douglas regarded it as a starvation diet.

Douglas' other version appeared in "Journal of an Expedition to
North-West American; Being the Second Journey Undertaken by David Douglas,
On Behalf of the Horticultural Society.":
Tuesday, 9th (May, 1826) - "Left the Kettle Falls on the Columbia River
at 10 a.m., with two horses, one carrying my provisions, which consisted of
buffalo dried meat, a little tea and sugar, my blanket and paper; the other
for carrying me over the bad places of the way. I had for my guides two
young men, sons of a Mr. Jacques Raphael Finlay, a Canadian Sauteur, who is
at present residing in the abandoned establishment of Spokane, in which
direction I was going. Mr. Finlay being a man of extensive information as
to the appearance of the country, animals, and so on, Mr. Dease kindly gave
me a note (again an indication that Jocko may have been able to read) to him
requesting that he would show me anything that he deemed curious in the way
of plants, &c. Took my departure in a northernly direction over the
mountains, towards the Spokane River distant about 100 or 110 miles....."
Wednesday, 10th - "Rose at daylight and had my horses saddled, and being
desirous of making the most of my time I took no breakfast further that a
little dried meat and a drink of water, and proceeded on my journey at five
o'clock. At twelve noon reached a small rapid river called Barriere River
by my guides, which took up an hour in crossing. As there were no Indians
near the place, we had to choose either making a raft or to swim. As the
latter was the easier method, and all of us good water-men, we unsaddled the
horses and drove them in. They all went over well except the last, which
entangled itself by the hind legs among some brushwood and struggled much
for a considerable time; fortunately the wood gave way and he reached the
shore much better than I had any reason to expect. I made two trips on my
back, one with my paper and pen, the other with my blanket and
clothes--holding my property above the water in my hands. My guides made
three trips each with the saddles and provisions. Breadth of river 30
yards; heat of the water 40 degrees. During this time there was a very heavy
shower of hail, and being nearly half-an-hour on the water I was so much
benumbed with cold that I was under the necessity of kindling a fire. After
handing my guides a pipe of tobacco and making ourselves comfortably warm, I
continued my route through a delightful undulating country till three
o'clock, when I began to ascend a second ridge of mountains, which I crossed
and camped at dusk at their base in a thick woody valley near a small stream
of water on the dry rocky ground."
Thursday, 11th - "Heavy rain during the night, which roused me long ere
day. In the twilight of the morn I raised camp, the weather assuming a more
inviting appearance. At seven in the morning gained the summit of the last
range of hills between the two rivers, and had one of the most sublime views
I ever beheld. As I approached the banks of the Spokane River the soil
became more barren, except small belts of low ground in the valleys--near
the mountain rills. Reached the old establishment at Spokane at eleven
o'clock, where I was very kindly received by Mr. Finlay. He regretted
exceedingly that he had not a single morsel of food to offer me. He and his
family were living for the last six weeks on the roots of Phalangium Quamash
(called by the natives all over the country Camas) and a species of black
lichen which grows on the pines. (Here Douglas gives the recipe for
preparing the black lichen.) A Cake of this sort and a small basin of water
was all he had to offer me. By the kindness of Mr. Dease, I had ample
provisions for fourteen days, with a good stock of game in the saddle-bags
which I killed on my way, and this enabled me to share the half of my stock
with him; such fare as I had, although very palatable, cannot be considered
fine living, but was to him the best meal he had enjoyed for some time. As
the principal object of my journey was to get my firelock arranged by him,
being the only person within the space of eight hundred miles who could do
it, and being an item of the utmost consequence to have done soon, I lost no
time in informing him of my request. Unfortunately he did not speak the
English language, and my very partial knowledge of French prevented me from
obtaining information which I should have acquired. In the afternoon I made
a walk up the river and returned at dusk, when I found he had obligingly put
my gun in good order, for which I presented him with a pound of tobacco,
being the only thing I had to give."
Friday, 12th - "Immediately after breakfast, at six in the morning, in
company with one of his sons, I made a short journey to the neighboring
hills. ......Mr. Finlay tells me that R.(ibes) aureum in that neighborhood
produces very fine yellow fruit; that he never saw it black or brown."
Saturday, 13th - "As I thought of bending my steps again towards the
Columbia, Mr. Finlay offered that one of his sons should escort me, which I
accepted. Before parting with him I made inquiry about a sort of sheep
found in this neighbourhood, about the same size as that described by Lewis
and Clark, but instead of wool it has short thick coarse hair of a brownish-
grey, from which it gets the name Mouton Gris of the voyageurs............ I
offered a small compensation to the sons to procure me skins of male and
female, at the same time showing them what way they should be prepared. He
assured me that in all probability he would be able to find them about
August, as he was going on a hunting trip to the higher grounds contiguous
to the Rocky Mountains."

In August of 1826 Jocko again was visited by David Douglas, who wrote,
"Thursday and Friday, 3rd & 4th - At nine o'clock in the morning crossed the
Spokane River to the old establishment on the south side, where we found old
Mr. Finlay, who gave us abundance of fine fresh salmon from his barrier,
placed in a small branch of the main river." ("Journal Kept By David
Douglas During His Travels in North America-1823-27", Antiquarian Press,
Ltd., New York, 1959, pp. 63, 169, 171, 203.
Jocko Finlay had stayed on at Spokane House after it was closed down by
the Hudson's Bay Company, living out the rest of his life there, using it as
a headquarters. In his last days he stayed pretty much at home, visiting
occasional passersby, such as David Douglas, and Francis and Edward
Ermatinger.
"Jacques Finlay had a large family of sons and daughters, noted for
their fine physique, many with light blue eyes. The men of the family were
competent and trustworthy. The daughters were fine wives and mothers."
(Meyers, p.166) Some accounts say he had as many as twenty children, at
least sixteen have been traced. He had many different wives in his life
time, one a Cree and another a Spokane, and still another a Pend d'Oreille.
There is no way of knowing how many wives or children he actually had,
probably more than is realized. In the church entry of his daughter,
Marguerite's marriage to her second husband, Angus Pierre McLeod, in 1855,
it is written that her mother was Teskwentichina, who can be safely regarded
as one of Jocko's wives. She was a Spokane Indian. Also in the 1860
Washington Territory census, Spokane County, Colville Valley, there is
listed as #8 for August 8, 1860, a Susan Phinley (Finley) aged 64 years, who
could also be another of his wives or the same person as Teskwentichina.

It hasn't been possible to separate his children and to place them each
with their rightful mothers, or to arrange them perfectly according to their
dates of birth. The history of some of his children is very sketchy and
will probably never be known or completed. In fact the existence of some of
them is only known through the very early allotment records of the Flathead
Agency of Dixon, Montana, now housed in the Federal Records Center in
Seattle, Washington. The Finley clan is so large and their genealogy so
difficult that errors no doubt exist. Jocko Finlay's descendants start with
his children, of which at least sixteen are known to have left some sort of
trace.
While Father Jean Pierre DeSmet was among the Finleys in the 1840s he
made a drawing of Jocko's Family Tree. Shown on the tree are the different
branches of his children and their children. Those children shown are:
James Augustine, Kiakik, Jaco Migwham, Baptiste, Marguerite, Joatte, Basil,
Josette, Pichina, Pennetzie Francois, Isabell, Nicolas, Josette, and
Rosette. In a letter from Nancy Merz, Jesuit Province Archives, St.Louis,
Missouri, 20 Sep 1987 to Betty Pierce of Paradise, CA: "This is in reply to
your inquiry about the Jaco Finley family tree chart you have in your
possession. I have not been able to find additional information on Jaco
Finlay. The chart you have may have been drawn by Father DeSmet since it
bears a resemblance to others drawn by him that bear his signature. The
chart has been kept with a collection of maps drawn probably between 1845
and 1850."
The following are mysterious persons who show up in the records and are
probably Jocko's children:

17. Emelie Fenlay - Although her parents are given as Francois Fenlay and
Josephte Cree, her birthdate is 1796, too early for Jocko's son Francois to
have been her father. I known of no other Finlay or Fenlay in the Oregon
country, her birthplace, besides Jocko and his family. She married Pierre
Bercier, and then Simon Plamondon.

18. Thornburn Finlay - A voyageur for the North West Company in the capacity
of middleman and hunter, at Fort George in 1813-14.

19. Bonhomme Finlay - A voyageur for the North West Company, as middleman
and hunter, at Spokane House in 1813-14.

20. Bonaparte Phinley (Finlay) - A trapper and hunter living in the
Bitterroot Valley, Montana in 1860 and born around 1817.

21. Jenno Phinley (Finlay) - A trapper and hunter living in the Bitterroot
Valley, Montana in 1860 and born around 1830.

22. Dominique - born 1816 and on the 1886 Flathead Census.

23. Angelic -

24. Mary -

More research must be made to determine who these people actually are.

Jocko Finlay died (about age 60) in 1828, from John Work's Field Journal
is: "An Indian arrived from Spokan with letters from Mr. Kettra (Kittson)
of the 25th inst. announcing the death of Jac Finlay about 10 days ago."
May 20, 1828 (?) Wade Thomson writes - 8 December 1986: "One entry of
interest referring to Jacques' death--`Edmonton House - 8 October 1828 - In
the evening a Saulteaux called Forsin (Jacques Finlay's brother-in-law)
arrived from the west side of the mountains, he brings news of Jacques'
death.' 9 October 1828 `Forsin and his brother Pembuck received a few
supplies and departed for Berland's Lake.'"

"Members of the Astor party referred to the Spokane country as Jacco
Land". (Meyers, p. 166) The Spokane Indians had a deep respect for him.

The records show that Jacques Raphael Finlay was the first explorer on
the headwaters of the Columbia River in the Flathead section and the Spokane
country. The register of the joint Hudson's Bay Company and the North West
Company's employees for the 1821-22, containing 1984 names, does not show
the name Finlay. "They appear to have never been servants of the Hudson's
Bay Company, but free traders and trappers." (Meyers, p. 167) Jacob Meyers
was in error here. Jocko had a long and distinguished career in the North
West Company and his sons were with John Work's Snake Country brigades for
the Hudson's Bay Company.

"His descendants today are numerous: some are on the Colville, some on
the Flathead, the Kalispell and the Coeur d'Alene Reservations. Others live
off the reservations." ("Jacques Raphael Finlay - Re-internment Ceremony -
July 25, 1976", Rev. Edward J. Kowrach.

".....the American trader Nathaniel Wyeth, passing through the Spokane
country in late March, 1833, on his way from Fort Vancouver to the States,
observed that near the Spokane River stood a lone bastion of the fort, the
only part the Indians had not torn down for firewood, a palisades of sorts
left by them to mark the final resting place of one believed to be Jaco
Finlay, lying in a coffin beneath it." ("The Spokane Indians", Ruby &
Brown, p.61)

"In 1951, archeologists found a skeleton beneath the southeast bastion
of the old post. It is very likely all that remains of Jaco Finlay, for the
body was buried in a coffin, flat on its back rather than as the Indians
interred their dead. Three buttons were found at given distances along the
upper torso signifying that he wore a shirt when buried. Five pipes were
found buried with him. Two were clay (one bowl had the initial "J" filed or
carved on it). The other three were of wood, stone, and metal. A fragment
of bone comb, some slate, a hunting knife, fragments of spectacles and part
of an iron cup also were found with the skeleton. All are now housed in the
Cheney Cowles Memorial Museum, Spokane, Washington." (Peltier, p. 40)

In a letter from Kathie M. MacGregor, 27 Jan 1988, viz: Effie Hill--
"She use to say that the man they dug up under the bastion at Spokane House
was not Jacco Finley at all, but an old Indian that some trappers killed in
the forest one night and buried there. She said something, too, about the
spectacles that were found with him, but I cannot remember what it was."

Spokane House Historical Site, has a marker which says: "Grave. Jacco
Finlay was a clerk in charge of constructing Spokane House in 1810. Jacco
died here in 1828 & was buried at his request, under one of the bastions."

The following is from the "Jacques Raphael Finlay Re-internment"; p.1.
"As is the standard practice in archeological excavations the objects
found are removed to laboratories for further study and identification. In
the dig here in 1951-53 the National Park Service (WA State Parks) sent the
artifacts and remains to the Eastern Washingtion State Historical Society.
>From 1951 to this date (1976) the remains of Jacko Finlay were kept at the
museum. It has been felt all along that this was not proper. At the
request of Mrs. Janette Whitford, a great, great, granddaughter, and of the
family of Finlay we today re-inter the skeletal remains and give them a
Christian burial.
"This is the man we are honoring today and giving a Christian burial 148
years after his death for then there were no ministers of religion of any
sort in this then virgin country. We bless this grave and may he rest in
peace!"

It may be of interest to note that Jacques Raphael Finlay has been briefly
mentioned in "The MacMillan Dictionary of Canadian Biography" on page 230,
as follows:
"Finlay, Jaco (d. 1828), fur-trader, was a half-breed son of James
Finlay, Sr.. He became a clerk of the North West Company, and in 1806 or
1811 he built Spokane House on the Spokane river. He died at Spokane in
May, 1828." He is not mentioned in the Dictionary of American Biography.

In 1983 I had written an version of the above summary, which Dr. Harry C.
Smith, of Wilsonville, Oregon had asked if he could use in his
autobiography. The request was granted, and the earlier version appears in
"Life is a Long Continuous Struggle - There Are No Winners", an
autobiography of Harry C. Smith, M.D. This later version has been published
in PIONEER BRANCHES, Northeast Washington Genealogical Society, Vol. IX, No.
2, Jan.1994, page 51, & etc.

On June 15, 1991 at Spokane House Interpretive Center, near Spokane, WA
the latest memorial to him was held - the Finlay/Finley Family Reunion and
Memorial Observance sponsored by James Gordon Perkins. Those attending
among his many descendants were: Pauline Flett, Jerome Peltier, and Father
Edward Kowroch, S.J.

>From PACK SADDLES TO TETE JAUNE CACHE, J. McGregor, Hurtiz Pub.,
Edmonton,1973
"Findlays are mentioned among the neighbors of Moberlys, Gauthiers, and
and the "rest of the Iroquois". Leah Tourond of Burns Lake says that she
thinks it was at Jasper's House--as a Isadore Findlay is mentioned in that.

>From FIREARMS, TRAPS, and TOOLS OF THE MOUNTAIN MEN-p-210-211:
"John Work, a chief trader of the Hudson's Bay Company, left a
contemporary account of the burial of Jaco Finley, caretaker at the
abandoned Spokane House in 1828. In 1954 Louis Caywood, National Park
Service archeologist, reported on the exhumation of human remains believed
to be Finley's. With the Skeleton was the knife blade within a
disintegrated light metal scabbard. No part of the knife handle has
remained . Spokane House was established by the North West Company in 1810,
taken over by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, and vacated by that company
in 1826. Jaco Finley, whose employment dated back to North West Company
days, remained at the post until his death and was there buried. His
unprepossessing knife offers fair testimony regarding one type of knife
carried by a trapper, and we have it straight from his hand , so to speak.
Interestingly enough, Jaco's half-breed son, Jacques, is identified as the
purchaser of two knives sold by William H. Ashley at the 1825 rendezvous on
Henry's Fork of the Green.". (1) ARCHEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT FORT SPOKANE,
1951,1952, 1953-Louis R. Caywood. (2)WILLIAM H. ASHLEY-Dale L. Morgan,
pp-118-29; states that Jacques was one of the deserters from Ogden's
Hudson's Bay Company party, on Weber River, 1825. However, Jacques is said
to have rejoined the British later. (Note: From Chalk-I believe he may be in
error here & that it was one of Jocko's sons and not Jocko). From "Jaco
Finlay's Grave"--Archeological Excavations at Fort Spokane 1951, by Louis R.
Caywood, Archeologist, Vancouver, Washington, June 1, 1952...
"The second burial found (plate III B) is believed to be that of Jaco
Finlay...........
The grave was found by Roy Carlson while looking for evidence of a
bastion outside the southeast corner of the "red" fort. A number of large
flat stones were found six inches below the surface of the ground. Removal
of the stones disclosed a thin layer of rotted wood which later was found to
have been the top of a coffin. The skeleton was immediately below the rotted
wood. The head was to the south and east. The heavy stones had caused the
coffin to collapse.
The coffin measured 6.2 feet long by 1.7 feet wide and 1.2 deep. It had
almost entirely rotted away, leaving only a thin shell of rotten wood
surrounding the skeleton. Thirteen nails were found which had been used in
making the coffin. The skeleton was an extremely poor condition because of
the interworking factors of shallow burial, destruction by rodents, and the
heavy stones which had been placed over the grave. Roots, insects, and
humidity had all played their parts in the decay of the bones. Because of
rodent activity
many of the bones were entirely gone. The ribs, all of the vertebrae, the
finger and toe bones, both petolla, and the left clavicle were missing. The
facial portion of the skull and the upper jaw had been reduced to meal by
the pressure of the heavy stones. Some of the teeth were missing. The right
tibis showed abnormal enlargement probably due to rheumatism.
Buried with the skeleton was a sizable collection of personal objects.
Five pipes were found with the remains. Two were of clay, one of wood in the
exact reproduction of a clay pipe, one was of stone and metal, and the fifth
was of copper. One pipe has lines which appear to have been filed into the
clay bowl as though Jaco had tried to mark it as his own. The "J" is very
plain, but whether an "F" was meant to be part of the "J" could not be
clearly ascertained. The mark actually may be nothing more than that placed
there during the manufacturing process. Other objects found with the
skeleton included the fragment of a bone comb, a piece of writing slate 10
inches by 3 inches, a hunting knife in a thin iron sheath, the fragments of
a pair of spectacles, the remains of an iron cup or mug, and 3 metal
buttons. A few fragments of cloth were distinguishable which probably were
the remains of a coat on which the buttons had been fastened.........

...Was buried at one of the forts or bastions. Jaco almost became a
familiar who was lost, so one September afternoon Roy Carlson, a University
of Washington archaeological student, who was working at the north east
corner of the outside line of posts was suddenly seen to be jumping and
dancing in great excitement. He had discovered the skeletal remains of Jaco
Finlay, and he was where he should be--at the corner of the original or
Astor Post, although no evidence of the bastion was discovered, which is not
strange as it was probably a two story structure but with only supporting
posts below resting on the ground or temporary rock foundations. The grave
was a shallow grave one--not more than 15 inches below the ground--and had
been marked by heavy rocks, which as time passed, had fallen in and been
covered over as the land was later farmed. The main bones of the skeleton
was found to be in fairly good condition. This discovery of hand-wrought
square nails, one coated with wood, indicated that the body had been buried
in a crude coffin. Which was not the case of Indians in that day. The
archaeologist found five pipes, one of the with the initials "J", a drinking
cup was unearthed, brass buttons which were no doubt on the jacket of the
old fur trader. Other things recovered with the skeleton were a hunting
knife, and strangest of all; a nose-piece and frames of a pair of spectacles
with a bit of glass on one side; also a portion of a bone comb...."

An early researcher on Jocko Finlay was Gladys Mayo-"Jocko River Was
Named For Jacques Raphael Finley, One Of Earliest Fur Traders To Cross
Mountains"-appears in THE PIONEERS-edited by Sam Johns, pp48-51.

Since doing this article on Jacques R. Finlay two western based writers,
Jack Nisbet and John C. Jackson have done work which includes pieces about
him. Jackson's CHILDREN OF THE FUR TRADE -Forgotten Metis of the Pacific
Northwest, Mountain Press, Pub.Co.,Missoula, Montana, 1995 is very good but
he makes mistakes in the genealogy of Jocko's descendants. On the other
hand he has brought to my attention some new details, dealing with Jocko's
rothers-in-laws:
from page 22:
Speaking of eastern Indians in the West Jackson writes: "St.Regis and
Caughnawaga Iroquois like Thomas Pembrook or Registre Bruguier were
disguised by English or French names." I wonder if there is a connection
between
Pembrook and Pembuck? Jackson also writes, " Two Bungees (Ojibwa) passed
along an invitation from their brother-in-law, Jacco Finley, to bring an HBC
trading outfit west of the mountains." It is well known that Jocko lived
among both the Iroquois and the Chippewas that were in the West--but did he
have in-laws in both camps? Probably so.

Children:
i Xavier (Zavier) FINLEY was born about 1779.

ii James FINLEY was born in 1794 in prob.Upper Bow, Fort, Saskatchewan,
Canada, and on 7 May 1844 in Porte d'Enfer, (Hellgate), Montana, married
SUSANNA MATILDA. James died about 1853/1854.

iii Augustin "Yoostah" FINLEY was born about 1800, and in Aug 1840, married
Clemence CAH-LE-MOSS, daughter of Therese, who was born about 1816/1820 in
Montana. Augustin "Yoostah" died in 1883. Clemence died on 6 Mar 1909.

iv John (John Siwash) (Three Guns) FINLEY was born about 1800, and married
Lizette (Josette) "Ko-ko-quam" PAUL, daughter of Aeneas "Big Knife"
(Iroquois) PAUL and Mary "Ukupa" ONE HOOF. Lizette (Josette) "Ko-ko-quam"
was also married to "Kiawuska" "Grou-wish-ah" LOZEAU.

v Patrick "Pichina" FINLEY was born about 1802 in near, Ft.Edmonton,
Saskatchewan, Canada, and married Margaret. Patrick "Pichina" died in Jan
1879 in Montana Terr. and was buried on 9 Jan 1879 in Frenchtown, Missoula
Co., Montana.

vi Francois "Benetsee" FINLEY was born about 1805 in near, Ft.Edmonton,
Saskatchewan, Canada, and married Susanna. Francois "Benetsee" died before
1873.

vii Miquam (Jacques) FINLEY was born in Canada, and married Agnes PAUL,
daughter of Aeneas "Big Knife" (Iroquois) PAUL and Mary "Ukupa" ONE HOOF,
who was born in 1820 in Washington Terr..

viii Suzette FINLEY married (Woods) DUBOIS.

ix Joatte FINLEY

x Marie Josephte "Josette" FINLEY was born about 1810, and about 1841,
married Alexander Guerette dit DUMONT who was born in 1815 in Green Bay,
Wisconsin. Marie Josephte "Josette" died after 1869 in Oregon.

xi Kiakik FINLEY married spouse unknown.

xii Isabella FINLAY

xiii Baptiste FINLEY married spouse unknown.

xiv Basil FINLEY

xv Josette FINLEY married (Peone) PION.

He also married TESHWENTICHINA, daughter of SPOKANE MAN and SPOKANE WOMAN.

Children:
xvi Nicholas "Nicolai" FINLEY was born about 1816 in Canada, and married
Suzette (Josephte), daughter of CAYUSE and PALOUSE, who was born about 1819
in Oregon Terr..

xvii Margaret "Maggie" FINLEY was born before 1828 in Canada, and married
William (Asselin) ASHLEY, son of Jean Pierre ASSELIN and Rosalie CREE, who
was born before 1828 in Canada. William (Asselin) died in Montana.

He also married a PEND D'OREILLE woman.

Children:
xiii Rosette "He-hi-ta" (Rose) FINLEY was christened 23 Aug 1840 in
Ft.Colville, (Stevens Co.), Washington Terr., married on 23 Aug 1840 in
Ft.Colville, (Stevens Co.), Washington Terr. Antoine DUQUET who was born .
Rosette "He-hi-ta" (Rose) died before 1908. Antoine died on 26 Jun 1851 in
St.Paul, Colville Valley, WA Terr. and was buried on 27 Jun 1851 in St.Paul,
Colville Valley, WA Terr..





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