Archiver > NIR-ARMAGH > 2002-02 > 1014740922

From: Alison Causton <>
Subject: [ARMAGH] County Armagh - Samuel Lewis' Topographical Dictionary (1837)
Date: Tue, 26 Feb 2002 11:28:42 -0500

ARMAGH (County of) , an inland county, in the province of ULSTER,
bounded on the north by Lough Neagh, on the east by the county of Down,
on the south-east by that of Louth, on the south-west by Monaghan, and
on the west and north-west by Tyrone: it is situated between 54º 3’ and
54º 31’ (N. Lat.), and between 6º 14’ and 6º 45’ (W. Lon.); and
comprises, according to the Ordnance survey, 328,076 statute acres, of
which 267, 317 acres are tillable, 17,941 are covered with water, and
the remainder is mountain and bog. The population, in 1821, was
197,427; and, in 1831, 220,134.
This tract is supposed to have been part of that named Ptolemy as the
territories of the Vinderii and Voluntii: it afterwards formed part of
the district called Orgial, which also comprised the counties of Louth
and Monaghan. The formation of this part of Ireland into a separate
dominion is said to have taken place so early as the year 332, after the
battle of Achaighleth-derg, in Fermoy, in which, as recorded by
Tigernach, abbot of Froechair the Brave, the last of the Ultonian kings
who resided in Eamania, was killed by the three Collas, who then
expelled the Ultonians from that part of the province to the south of
Lough Neagh, and formed it into an independent state, to which they gave
the name of Orgial, afterwards corrupted into Oriel or Uriel, names by
which it was distinguished to the beginning of the seventeenth century.
The county was made shire ground, under its present name, in 1586, by
the lord-deputy, Sir John Perrott, who, not relying with confidence on
the vigilance and care of Henry O’Nial and Sir Henry Bagnell, to whom
the government of Ulster had been entrusted, projected the division of
the greater part of that province into seven counties, of which Armagh
was one, and took its name from the chief tonw in it. For each of these
counties he appointed sheriffs, commissioners of the peace, coroners,
and other officers. Previously to this arrangement, the chief part of
the property of the county had centred in the families of the O’Nials,
the Mac Cahans, and the O’Hanlons. At the commencement of the
seventeenth century, it was principally vested in those of Mac Henry,
Acheson, O’Nial, Brownlow, and O’Hanlon, exclusively of the great
territories settled on Moharty, which the Mac Cahans had forfeited in
rebellion, and a large tract of country called Oirther, afterwards
Orior, a district in the southern part, which also escheated to the
crown by rebellion of a branch of the O’Hanlons. According to a project
for planting, by Jas. I., the whole of the arable and pasture land,
amounting to 77,580 acres, was to be allotted in 61 proportions of three
classes of 2000, 1500, and 1000 acres each, among the English and
Scottish undertakers, the servitors, and the Irish natives. A portion
was also assigned to the primate, another for glebes for the incumbents
(of whom there was to be one for each proportion), another for the four
corporate towns of Armagh, Mountnorris, Charlemont, and Tanderagee, and
a fourth for a free grammar school. The native Irish were to be
distributed among a few of the several proportions, with the exception
of the swordsmen, who were to migrate into waste lands in Connaught and
Munster. The project, which was but partially effected, was not acted
upon until 1609, when a royal commission was issued to inquire into the
king’s title to the escheated and forfeited lands in Ulster, with a view
to the plantation there. Inquisitions were consequently held, the
return of which for Armagh, made in August of the same year, states that
the county was then divided into the five baronies of Armaghe,
Toaghriny, Orier, Fuighes, and Onylane or O’Nealane, and enumerates with
great particularity the names and tenures of the proprietors. In 1618,
a second commission was issued to Captain Pynnar and others, to
ascertain how far the settlers located there in the intervening period
had fulfilled the terms of their agreement. It is somewhat remarkable
that, although the inquisition names five baronies, three only are
noticed in Pynnar’s survey; those of Armaghe and Toaghriny being
omitted, probably because they contained no forfeited property. The
number of the proportions specified in the survey are but 22, eleven of
which, situated in O’Neylan, were in the hands of English undertakers;
five in the Fuighes, in those of Scottish undertakers; and seven in
Orier were allotted to servitors and natives. The number of tenants and
men capable of bearing arms in the two first proportions amounted to 319
of the former, and 679 of the latter; the number in Orier is not given.
The county is partly in the diocese of Dromore, but chiefly in that of
Armagh. For civil purposes it is now divided into the baronies of
Armagh, turaney, O’Neilland East, O’Neilland West, Upper Fews, Lower
Fews, Upper Orior, and Lower Orior. It contains the city and borough of
Armagh; part of the borough, sea-port, and market-town of Newry; the
market and post-towns of Lurgan, Portadown, Tanderagee, Market-hill, and
Newtown-Hamilton; the disfranchised borough of Charlemont; the
post-towns of Richhill, Keady, Blackwatertown, Loughgall, Tynan,
Forkhill, and Flurry-Bridge; and the market-towns of Middleton and
Crossmeglan, which, with Killylea, have each a penny post. Prior to the
Union it sent six members to the Irish parliament, two for the county at
large, and two for each of the boroughs; but at present its
representation consists of three members in the Imperial parliament, two
for the county at large, and one for the borough of Armagh. The
election takes place at Armagh; and the constituency, as registered in
Oct. 1836, consisted of 384 £50, 324 £20, and 2384 £10 freeholders; 5
£50 and 19 £20 rent-chargers; and 122 £20 and 573 £10 leaseholders;
making a total of 3811. It is in the north-east circuit: the assizes
are held at Armagh, where the county court-house and gaol are situated;
and quarter sessions at Armagh, Lurgan, Market-hill, and Ballybott, of
which the three last have each a court-house and bridewell. The number
of persons charged with criminal offences and committed to the county
gaol, in 1835, was 385, and of civil bill commitments, 111. The local
government is vested in a lieutenant, vice-lieutenant, 13
deputy-lieutenants, and 63 other magistrates; besides whom there are the
usual county officers, including three coroners. There are 17
constabulary police stations, having in the whole a force of a
stipendiary magistrate, sub-inspector, paymaster, 5 chief and 19
subordinate constables, and 99 men, with 5 horses, maintained equally by
Grand Jury presentments and by Government. The amount of Grand Jury
presentments, for 1835, was £27,259. 2. 3_., of which £4704. 0. 3. was
for the public roads of the county at large; £9974. 1. 7_. For the
public roads, being the baronial charge; £1475. 11. 4. in repayment of
loans advanced by the Government; £2279. 10. 7. for the police, and
£8825. 18. 6. for public establishments, officers’ salaries, buildings,
&c. The public charitable institutions are a district lunatic asylum,
and the county infirmary and fever hospital at Armagh; and dispensaries
at Crossmeglin, Forkhill, Market-hill, Jonesborough, Keady,
Blackwatertown, Seagoe, Loughgall, Richhill, Lurgan, Newtown-Hamilton,
Poyntz-Pass, Tynan, Portadown, Tanderagee and Ballybott, supported by
equal Grand Jury presentments and private subscriptions. There are also
dispensaries at Tanderagee, Portadown, and Tullyhappy, built and
supported by the Earl and Countess of Mandeville; and a fever hospital
at Middleton, built and supported by the Trustees of Bishop Sterne’s
munificent bequest. In the military arrangements this county is within
the northern district, of which Armagh is the head-quarters, where there
are an ordnance-depôt and an infantry barrack constructed to accommodate
12 officers, 174 men, and 5 horses: at Charlemont there is a fort, with
an artillery barrack for 5 officers, 151 men, and 79 horses, to which is
attached a hospital for 22 patients.
The northern verge of the county, near Lough Neagh, the north-western
adjoining Tyrone, and the neighbourhoods of Armagh, Market-hill, and
Tanderagee, are level; the remainder is hilly, rising in the southern
parts into mountains of considerable elevation. The highest is Slieve
Gullion, rising, according to the Ordnance survey, 1893 feet above the
level of the sea; it is about seven miles from the southern border, and
is considered to be the loftiest point of land in Ulster, except Slieve
Donard, in the neighbouring county of Down. Slieve Gullion sinks on the
east into the Fathom Hills, which skirt the Newry water. One of the
finest and most extensive prospects in Ulster is obtained from its
summit, which commands the bay of Dundalk; and the bold and picturesque
features of mountain scenery are confined to this immediate vicinity,
including the Doobrin mountains and the neighbourhood of Forkhill.
Westward to the Fews the country exhibits a chain of abrupt hills, the
greater part of which can never be reduced to a state of profitable
cultivation. Further west are the Fews mountains, a subordinate range,
lying in a direction from south-east to north-west. The fertility of
the more level districts towards the eastern, northern, and
north-western confines is very remarkable, especially in the views from
Richhill, the numerous demesnes being sufficiently wooded to ornament
the whole country, and the surface generally varied by pleasing
undulations. From the shores of Lough Neagh, however, extend
considerable tracts of low, marsh, and boggy land. The other lakes are
few and small: that of Camlough, romantically situated on the northern
verge of Slieve Gullion, is the largest. Lough Clay, in the western
part of the county, which gives rise to one of the branches of the
Callen river, is the next in size; but neither of them would be noticed
for extent or beauty if situated in some of the neighbouring counties.
A chain of small lakes occupying the south-western boundary of the
county is valuable from the supply of water afforded by them to the
mills in their neighbourhood. Coney Island, near the southern shore of
Lough Neagh, and between the mouths of the Blackwater and Bann rivers,
is the only island in the county; it is uninhabited. The climate is
more genial than most of the other counties in Ulster, as is evinced by
the greater forwardness of the harvests: this advantage has been
attributed to the nature of the soil and subsoil, the gentle undulation
of the surface, the absence of moor or marshy land, and the protection
by mountains from the cooling breezes of the sea.
The soil is generally very fertile, especially in the northern part,
the surface of which is a rich brown loam, tolerably deep, on a
substratum of clay or gravel. There is an abundance of limestone in the
vicinity of Armagh, and in Kilmore and other places; and there are
quarries near Lough Neagh, but the stone lies so deep, and they are
subject to such a flow of water, as to be of little practical use.
Towards Charlemont there is much bog, which yields red ashes, and is
easily reclaimable; the substratum of this is a rich limestone. The
eastern part of the county consists of a light friable soil. In the
south the country is rocky and barren: huge rocks of granite are found
on the surface promiscuously mixed with blocks of limestone, as if
thrown together by some convulsion of nature. All the limestone
districts make good tillage and meadow ground: the natural meadown
found on the banks of the rivers, and formed of a very deep brown loam,
yields great crops without manure. The hilly district is generally of a
deep retentive soil on a gravelly but not calcareous substratum: a
decayed freestone gravel, highly tinged with ferruginous ore, is
partially found here: the subsoil is sometimes clay-slate. In these
districts heath is peculiarly vigorous, except where the judicious
application of lime has compelled it to give place to a more productive
vegetation. Except near Newtown-Hamilton, there is but little bog among
these hills. The valleys which lie between them have a rich and loamy
soil, which yields much grain, and does not abound in aquatic plants,
although the poa fluitans grows in them in great luxuriance. The
general inequality of surface which pervades the county affords great
facilities for drainage.
In consequence of the dense population the farms are generally very
small, and much land is tilled with the spade. Wheat is a very general
crop in the baronies of Armagh, the O’Neillands, and turaney; the main
crops in the other baronies are oats, flax, and potatoes. In the
smaller farms potatoes constitute the first and second crops, sometimes
even a third; and afterwards flax occupeis a portion of the potatoe
plot, and barley the remainder, if the soil be dry and fine, but if
otherwise, crops of oats are taken in succession. The treatment of the
wheat crop consists of one harrowing and one ploughing, to level the
potatoe furrows; if two crops of potatoes have preceded, a small
quantity of ashes is scattered over the surface. The seed most in use
is the red Lammas wheat, and the quantity sown is about three bushels to
the acre. Potatoe oats are commonly sown on the best lands; black oats,
and sometimes white oats, on land manured with lime, in the mountainous
districts; this latter species, when sown on mountain land not
previously manured and drained, will degenerate into a black grain in
two or three seasons. Flax is invariably sown on potatoe ground, the
plot being tilled with the spade, but not rolled: Dutch seed is sown on
heavy soils, American on light soils. The seed is not saved, and
therefore the plant is pulled just before it changes colour, from an
opinion that when thus prepared it makes finer yarn. More seed was sown
in 1835 than was ever before known, in consequence of the increased
demand from the spinners in England and Ireland. The pasturage is
abundant and nutritious; and though there are no extensive dairies, cows
are kept by all the small farmers of the rich northern districts, whence
much butter is sent to the Belfast market: a considerable quantity of
butter, generally made up in small firkins, is also sent to Armagh and
Newry for exportation. The state of agriculture in modern times has
very much improved; gentlemen and large farmers have introduced all the
improved agricultural implements, with the practice of drainage,
irrigation, and rotation crops. Mangel-wurzel, turnips, clover, and all
other green crops are now generally cultivated even upon the smallest
farms, particularly around Market-hill, Tanderagee, Banagher, and other
places, where the greatest encouragement is given by Lords Gosford,
Mandeville, and Charlemont, and by Col. Close and other resident
gentlemen, who have established farming societies and expend large sums
annually in premiums. The Durham, Hereford, North Devon, Leicester,
Ayrhsire, and other breeds of cattle have been introduced, and by
judicious crosses a very superior stock has been raised: some farmers
on good soils have also brought over the Alderney breed, which thrives
remarkably well; but in some of the mountain distrcits the old
long-horned breed of the country is still preferred, and a cross between
it and the old Leicester appears to suit both soil and climate, as they
grow to a large size, give great quantities of milk, and fatten rapidly.
The breed of sheep and horses has also been greatly improved; the
former kind of stock is chiefly in the possession of gentlemen and large
farmers. The horses used in farming are mostly a light active kind; but
the best hunters and saddle horses are brought hither by dealers from
other counties. Numerous herds of young cattle are reared on the Fews
mountains, which are the only part of the county where grass farms are
extensive. Goats are numerous, and are allowed to graze at liberty in
the mountainous districts. Hogs are fattened in great numbers; the
gentry prefer the Chinese breed, but the Berkshire is preferred by the
country people, as being equally prolific and more profitable. Lime and
dung are the general manures; the former is usuaelly mixed with clay for
the culture of potatoes, and is also applied to grass lands as a surface
dressing preparatory to tillage, sometimes even three years before the
sod is broken, as being deemed more effective than manuring the broken
ground; the average quantity of lime laid on an acre is from 30 to 40
barrels. Thorn hedges well kept are the common frences in the richer
districts, and with scattered timber trees and numerous orchards give
them a rich woody appearance. In the mountainous district, too, the
same fences are rising in every direction. Many parts of the county,
particularly in the barony of Armagh, are decorated with both old and
new timber: and in comparison with neighbouring districts it has a
well-wooded appearance; but there are no extensive woodlands, although
there is, near Armagh, a large public nursery of forest trees.
The geological features of the county are various and interesting. The
mountain of Slieve Gullion, in its south-eastern extremity, is an offset
of the granite district of Down, and is remarkable for the varieties of
which it is composed. It is in the form of a truncated cone, and
presents on some sides mural precipices several hundred feet in height,
from which it acquires an appearance of greater elevation than it really
attains: the summit is flat, and on it is a lake of considerable
extent. The granite of this mountain, particularly that procured near
the summit, is frequently used for millstones, being extremely hard and
fine-grained, and composed of quartz, feldspar, mica, and hornblende.
This, indeed, is here the common composition of this primitive rock, the
feldspar being grey and the mica black. Sometimes the hornblende is
absent, in which case the rock is found to be a pure granite; and at
others it graduates into a beautiful sienite composed of flesh-coloured
feldspar and hornblende. Flesh-coloured veins of quartz are also found
to variegate the granite, in a beautiful manner, in several places. On
the south, towards Jonesborough, the sienite succeeds to the granite,
and afterwards passes into porphyry, which is succeeded by silicious
slate. The Newry mountains and the Fathom hills are composed of
granite. Around Camlough mica slate is found in vast beds. Westward
the granite district of Slieve Gullion extends to the hill above
Larkin-mill, on the western declivity of which the granite basis is
covered by almost vertical strata, composed first of an aggregation of
quartz and mica with steatite, which in the distance of about a quarter
of a mile is occasionally interstratified with greenish grey clay-slate,
of which the strata still further west are wholly composed. Several
slate quarries have here been opened and partially worked, but none with
spirit or skill: the principal are at Dorcy, Newtown-Hamilton,
Cregan-Duff, and in the vicinity of crossmeglan. Further distant this
becomes grauwacke slate, by being interstratified with grauwacke. In
the neighbourhood of Market-hill the strate comprise also hornblende
slate and greenstone porphyry. Sandstone is also connected with this
district; there is a quarry of remarkably fine freestone at Grange; and
on the surface of the southern confines is seen the intermixture of grit
and limestone rocks above noticed. Trap rocks, forming a hard stone
varying in hute between dark green and blue, here called whin, are found
in various places in huge blocks and boulders, or long narrow stones.
The substratum of the eastern portion of the county varies between a
silicious schistus and argillaceous deposit, forming a grauwacke
district, which extends across to the western confines of the county.
The west and middle of the county is limestone, which is generally
white, except in the vicinity of the city of Armagh, where it assumes a
red tinge, exhibiting that colour more distinctly as it approaches the
town, improving also in quality, and increasing in the varieties of its
shades. The minerals, as connected with metallurgy, are so few as
scarcely to deserve notice, lead only excepted, a mine of which was
worked in the vicinity of Keady, on a property held by the Earl of
Farnham, under Dublin college; but after much expenditure the operations
were discontinued in consequence of the loss incurred, which, however,
has been attributed to the want of skilful or honest superintendence.
Lead ore has also been found near Market-hill, in several places near
Newtown-Hamilton, on the demesne of Ballymoyer, near Hockley, in slieve
cross, near forkhill, and in the parish of Middleton. Some indications
of iron, imperfect lead, regulus of manganese, and antimony, have been
found in a few spots. The other mineral substances found here are
potters’ clay and a variety of ochres. Various kinds of timber,
particularly oak, pine, and yew, have been raised out of the bogs;
petrified wood is found on the shores of Lough Neagh; and fern,
spleenwort, and mosses have been discovered in the heart of slaty stones.
The woollen trade flourished extensively in this county until
interrupted by the legislative measures enacted by William III., and
cloth of every description was manufactured. The linen manufacture is
now pursued in all its branches, the finest goods being produced in the
northern parts. The extent of the manufacture cannot easily be
ascertained, because much comes in from the outskirts of the
neighbouring counties, though the excess thus arising is most probably
counterbalanced by the goods sent out of Armagh to the markets in the
adjoining counties. At the commencement of the present century, the
value of its produce annually was estimated at £300,000, and at present
exceeds £500,000. Large capitals are employed by bleachers, who
purchase linen and bleach it on their own account; the principal
district is on the river Callan, at Keady. Considerable sums are also
employed in the purchase of yarn, which is given out to the weaver to
manufacture. Woolleen goods are made solely for home consumption, and
in only small quantities. Manufactories for the necessaries of life in
greatest demand, such as candles, leather, soap, beer, &c. are numerous;
and there are mills for dressing flax and spinning linen yarn, and
numerous large flour-mills.
The two principal rivers are the Blackwater and the Bann, which chiefly
flow along the north-eastern and north-western boundaries of the county,
the former discharging itself into the western side of Lough Neagh, and
the latter into the southern part of the same lake, at Bann-foot ferry.
The Newry water, after flowing through a narrow valley between the
counties of Down and Armagh, empties itself into the bay of Carlingford,
below Newry. The Callan joins the Blackwater below Charlemont: the
Cusheir falls into the Bann at its junction with the Newry canal; and
the Camlough, flowing from the lake of the same name, discharges itself
into the Newry water. This last named river, during its short course of
five miles, supplies numerous bleachworks, and corn, flour, and flax
mills: its falls are so rapid that the tail race of the higher mill
forms the head water of the next lower. The Newtown-Hamilton river is
joined by the Tara, and flows into Dundalk bay, into which also the
Flurry or Fleury, and the Fane, empty themselves. The total number of
main and branch streams is eighteen, and the combined lengths of all are
165 miles. The mouths of those which flow into Lough Neagh have a fine
kind of salmon trout, frequently 30lb. in weight: the common trout is
abundant and large, as are also pike, eels, bream, and roach. An inland
navigation along the border of the counties of Armagh and Down, from
Newry to Lough Neagh, by the aid of the Bann and the Newry water, was
the first line of canal executed in Ireland. Commencing at the tideway
at Fathom, it proceeds to Newry, and admits vessels drawing nine or ten
feet of water, having at each end a sea lock. From Newry to the point
where the Bann is navigable, a distance of fifteen miles, is a canal for
barges of from 40 to 60 tons, chiefly fed from Lough Brickland and Lough
Shark, in the county of Down. The river Bann, from its junction with
the canal to Lough Neagh, a distance of eleven miles and a half,
completes the navigation, opening a communication with Belfast by the
Lagan navigation, and with the Tyrone collieries by the Coal Island or
Blackwater navigation. The chief trade on this canal arises from the
import of bleaching materials, flax-seed, iron, timber, coal, and
foreign produce from Newry; and from the export of agricultural produce,
yarn, linen, firebricks, pottery, &c. The canal from Lough Erne to
Lough Neagh, now in progress, enters this county near Tynan, and passes
by Caledon, Blackwatertown, and Charlemont to its junction with the
river Blackwater above Verner’s bridge, and finally with Lough Neagh. A
line of railway from Dublin to Armagh, and thence to Belfast, and
another from Armagh to Coleraine, have been projected. The roads are
generally well laid out, and many of them of late have been much improved.
Among the relics of antiquity are the remains of the fortress of
Eamania, near Armagh, once the royal seat of the kings of Ulster. The
Danes’ Cast is an extensive line of fortification in the south-eastern
part of the county, and stretching into the county of Down. The tumulus
said to mark the burial-place of “Nial of the hundred battles” is still
visible on the banks of the Callan. The Vicar’s Cairn, or
Cairn-na-Managhan, is situated near the city of Armagh. A tumulus in
Killevy parish contains an artificial cavern. Two ancient brazen
weapons were found in a bog near Carrick, where a battle is said to have
been fought in 941. Spears, battle-axes, skeyns, swords, the golden
torques, and collars, rings, amulets, and metals of gold, also various
ornaments of silver, jet, amber, &c. have been found in different
places, and are mostly preserved. Near Hamilton’s Bawn, in 1816, was
found the entire skeleton of an elk, of which the head and hors were
placed in the hall of the Infirmary at Armagh; and in the same year also
the body of a trooper was discovered in a bog near Charlemont, of which
the dress and armour appeared to be of the reign of Elizabeth. The
religious houses, besides those of the city of Armagh, of which any
memorial has been handed down to us were Clonfeacle, Killevey or
Kilsleve, Kilmore, Stradhalloyse, and Tahellen. The most remarkable
military remains are tyrone’s ditches, near Poyntz Pass, Navan fort, the
castles of Criff Keirn and Argonell, the castle in the pass of Moyrath,
and Castle Roe.
The peasantry are in possession of superior comforts in their
habitations as well as in food and clothing, which cannot be attributed
solely to the linen manufacture, as their neighbours of the same trade
in the adjoining counties of Cavan and Monaghan are far behind them in
this respect. The county possesses sufficient fuel for domestic
consumption; but coal is imported from England by the Newry canal, and
from the county of Tyrone by the Blackwater. In no other county do the
working classes consume so much animal food. The general diffusion of
the population is neither the result of a predetermined plan, nor of
mere accident: it arises from the nature of the linen manufacture,
which does not require those employed in it to be collected into
overgrown cities, or congregated in crowded factories. Engaged
alternately at their loom and in their farm, they derive both health and
recreation from the alternation. Green lawns, clear streams, pure
springs, and the open atmosphere, are necessary for bleaching: hence it
is that so many eminent bleachers reside in the country, and hence also
the towns are small, and every hill and valley abounds with rural and
comfortable habitations.
In the mountainous districts are several springs slightly impregnated
with sulphur and iron. The borders of the bogs sometimes also exhibit
ferruginous oozings, one of which in the Fews mountains is said to be
useful in scrofulous complaints. The same effect was also formerly
attributed to the waters of Lough Neagh, in the north-western limits of
this county. Boate states, in addition to this, that the temperature of
the sand at the bottom of the bay in which this sanative quality is
perceived, alternates frequently between cold and warmth. A petrifying
quality, such as that said to exist in some parts of Lough Neagh, has
been discovered at Rosebrook, near Armagh, the mansion-house of which
was built, in a great measure, of petrifactions raised from a small lake
there. Petrified branches of hawthorn have been found near the city of
Armagh; and fossil remains of several animals have also been discovered
in the limestone rocks in the same vicinity. Petrifactions of the
muscle, oyster, leech, together with the dendrites, belemnites, and
madreporites, are also found; and in the mountain streams are pure
quartz crystals, of which a valuable specimen, found near Keady, is in
the possession of Dr. Colvan, of Armagh.
>From A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland, Comprising the Several
Counties, Cities, Boroughs, Corporate, Market, and Post Towns, Parishes
and Villages, by Samuel Lewis.
Two Volumes, 675 + 738 pages. Originally published 1837 at London,
England. This excerpt from Vol. I, pp 61-66.

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