Archiver > SMOTHERS-DNA > 2008-10 > 1223535151

From: Nena Smothers <>
Subject: [SMOTHERS-DNA] ftDNA prices/x Chromosome testing JFYI
Date: Thu, 9 Oct 2008 06:52:31 +0000

I meant to post the new prices for new participants before so here they are.......Nena

Group discounted prices

Y-DNA 12-marker test $99 + $4 SH

Y-DNA 25-marker test $124 + $4 SH

Y-DNA 37-marker test $149 + $4 SH

Y-DNA 67-marker test $248 + $4 SH

Y-DNA-Refine12to25 (upgrade a 12-marker test to 25-marker test) $49

Y-DNA-Refine12to37 (upgrade a 12-marker test to 37-marker test) $99

Y-DNA-Refine12to67 (upgrade a 12-marker test to 67-marker test) $189

Y-DNA-Refine25to37 (upgrade a 25-marker test to 37-marker test) $49

Y-DNA-Refine25to67 (upgrade a 25-marker test to 67-marker test) $148

Y-DNA-Refine37to67 (upgrade a 37-marker test to 67-marker test) $99

It takes a 68-cent stamp to mail the kit back to the lab.

Please note SH - Shipping & Handling is $6 outside the United States.

About X-chromosome tests: JFYI if someone needs to do this.

For Grandmother to Granddaughter tests, X-chromosome testing is your least expensive option while obtaining very high accuracy (99.9%+).
Think about the father of the child (the son of the Grandfather), if
this man is NOT the biological father of his son, then you need know if there is any possibility that the true biological father was not a close relative. (ie, could other possible father be a brother, cousin or other type of close relative to the alledged father?)

If the answer is no, then a X-chromosome test is a great option.
All men have one X chromosome, it is passed down from Father to Daughter, woman have two X-chromosomes.
Therefore a Grandmother, her son, and her 3 Granddaughters will all have at least one of their X-chromosomes exactly the same.

X Chromesome testing:

The X chromosome, found in both males and females, is more than 153 million base pairs and contains roughly 1000 genes.
Females have two X chromosomes while males have just one.

The use of X chromosomes to study genealogical relationships is still
relatively new.
The X chromosome, just like the Y, contains STRs, called
The problem with studying X-STRs is that the entire X chromosome
undergoes recombination during meiosis.
In other words, in females the two X chromosomes randomly swap information and genes.
Family Tree DNA, one of the leaders of X-STR research (using methods developed by DNA-Fingerprint), uses "haplotype blocks", or regions of X-STRs that are inherited intact over several generations.

A male's X chromosome is inherited from his mother and is a mixture
of her two X chromosomes, one from her mother and one from her father.
It is therefore a mixture of the maternal grandparent's X

A female inherits one X chromosome from each of her two parents. The X chromosome from her father is passed on from his mother is a mixture of her parent's (the paternal great-grandparent's) DNA, while the X chromosome from the female's mother is a mixture of her parent's (the maternal grandparent's) DNA.

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