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From: "William C. Bell" <>
Subject: [CREEK-SOUTHEAST-L] Sam Moniac
Date: Wed, 3 Mar 1999 14:02:07 +-500


Hi List,

Several people have asked where one could read about Sam Moniac. I haven't seen any one document that is specifically about him. Over the past few years I extracted references to him from various publications that I ran across. For the benefit of those who have not seen some of these references I will post what I have to the List, for those who have seen them, excuse the repeat.

If the posts are too long let me know. Hope it is of interest to someone.

Regards,

William C. Bell

INSTALLMENT No. 1 of 3

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The American Indian in Alabama and The Southeast
by John Franklin Phillips
1986, The United Methodist Publishing House, Nashville, TN

page 131-132XIVREMNANTS REMAIN ACROSS THE SOUTHEAST THE CREEK INDIAN REMNANT

There is a legend that says Chief Lynn McGhee saved the life of General Andrew Jackson during the American-Creek War of 1812-1814 period. This legend was shared with me by Mrs. John W. Bradshaw of Ensley, Alabama, who, under the direction of The Episcopal Bishop of Alabama, had worked as a missionary for some five years with the Creek Indians of the Atmore area.
In 1836 Chief Lynn McGhee and two other friendly Creeks were given a tract of land each. Some hold this was done because Chief McGhee had saved the life of General Jackson. Others hold the view that this land grant was made because the three were guides or Indian scouts for Jackson's Forces. The primary basis of this claim was the Treaty between The United States and The Creek Nation of Indians of February 16, 1815 granting Samuel Smith, Lynn McGhee, and Semoice each a reservation of 640 acres of land in the area.

THE PRIVATE STATUTES AT LARGE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,

CHAP. CCCXXXIII. An Act for the relief of Samuel Smith, Lynn MacGhee, and Semoice, friendly Creek Indians.
Be it enacted, &c., That Samuel Smith, Lynn MacGhee, and Semoice, friendly Creek Indians, who were entitled, under the treaty with the Creek nation of Indians, ratified on the sixteenth of February, eighteen hundred and fifteen, to reservations of six hundred and forty acres of land each, including their improvements, which lands have been sold by the United States, be, and they are hereby, authorized to enter, without payment, with the register and receiver of the land office for the land page district in which the same may lie, in Alabama, one entire section each of land subject to entry at private sale; to be held by them on the same terms and conditions as the reservations given by said treaty.
Approved July 2, 1836.
Statute I.
July 2, 1836.
Authorized to enter a tract of land.
Act of March 2, 1837, ch. 29.

3 G 2

CHAP. XXIX. An Act to amend an act approved the second of July, eighteen hundred and thirty-six, for the relief of Samuel Smith, Linn McGhee, and Semoice, Creek Indians; and, also, an act passed the second July, eighteen hundred and thirty-six, for the relief of Susan Marlow.

Be it enacted, &c., That so much of the acts for the relief of Samuel Smith, Linn McGhee, Semoice, and Susan Marlow, as restrict them to the entry of one entire section of land, be, and the same is hereby repealed; and the said Samuel Smith, Linn McGhee, Semoice, and Susan Marlow, are hereby authorized to enter, without payment, and by legal subdivisions, a quantity of land not exceeding six hundred and forty acres each, which is subject to entry at private sale.
Approved March 2, 1837.
Statute II .
March 2, 1837.
1836, ch. 333.
1836, ch. 334

So much of acts as restricts them to one section, repealed. Authorized to enter, &c.

[A Susan Marlow is listed as the wife of Sam Moniac II ]
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SHEM HAM & JAPHETH:THE PAPERS OF W. O. TUGGLE:
Comprising His Indian Diary Sketches & Observations Myths & Washington Journal in the Territory & at the Capital, 1879-1882
Edited by Eugene Current-Garcia with Dorothy B. Hatfield
University of Georgia Press

page 51 Osceolas half brother William Powell lives near Okmulgee (Try to get picture of Hepsy & Wm Powell) +++

page 88 Osceola the Seminole chief killed the whites & here sat John Powell--a white man raised by Lucy Powell, Osceola's sister. His parents were a Spaniard & English woman & they died when he was a baby-- He lives among the Seminoles, is a Baptist, an interpreter & an xhorter.

page 131 Major McHenry was a methodist minister, and had been preaching for many years. He introduced me to Hepsy Ho-mar-ty, a sister of Osceola, the famous warrior who died in prison at Savan[nah.] Hepsy was stout, had a pleasant face, hazel eyes, somewhat resembling the picture of her mother. She was fourteen years old when her people left Alabama. She had come to the store to trade, traveling in a northern manufactured wagon drawn by two little boy ponies, one of them followed by a very iminutive colt. Talking with her, Major McHenry acting as interpreter she said that her father was a white man named Powell, who was also the father of Osceola, but their mothers were not the same; that she remembered some of the incidents [in] the war of 1836, and was now a widow. She did not know her age.

Footnote 1 -- Osceola, one of the greatest of the "Patriot Chiefs," was born about 1804 in a village near the Tallapoosa River in Alabama. His people, called Tallassees, belonged to the Creek nation of Indians, but his father was believed to have been a half-breed Scottish-Creek trader named William Powell. An intrepid leader in the Creek and. Seminole Wars, Osceola was captured in Florida and imprisoned at Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island in Charleston, South Carolina, where he died on January 30, 1838 The poignant story of his capture, death, and subsequent decapitation is told by Josephy in "The Death of Osceola," The Patriot Chiefs (London, 1962), pp. 177-208. A contemporary account of Osceola, together with illustrations, may be found in George Catlin's Letters and Notes on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians (Minneapolis, 1965), II, 218-222.
Footnote 2 -- Catlin, writing in the 18305, confirms the fact that Osceola was known as Powell among his fellow tribesmen (p. 219 ).
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Massacre at Fort Mims: Red Eagle Was There
The story of the worst massacre in American history
by David Pierce Mason, 1975
Greenberry Publishing Co., Mobile, Ala.

page 166 - 167 sketches - (8) Francis, Josiah: Self-proclaimed prophet to the Creeks, son of an Indian mother and an English father. He was a cousin of Tecumsey, who visited and was nsited by the great Shawnee. It is probable that their kinship was through their white ancestry rather than through their Indian lines.
(13) McGillivary, Alexander: Perhaps the greatest leader the Creek Confederation ever had. He was disgraced after signing a treaty with the U.S. in 1790 which ceded much Indian land to the Georgians. He died shortly afterward and there was no one who could adequately take his place.
(14) McNac, Aleck: Known by many names, depending upon who was spelling or pronouncing them. He was also known as McNay. Properly, he was Alexander Moniac. He was the son of an Indian mother and a Hollander father. His sister, Mary, was the first wife of William Weatherford. Though he had much pressure put upon him by High Head Jim and Josiah Francis to join the "Red Stick" cause, his loyalty for the most part was with the settlers. He was rewarded by having his son, David, honored as the first Indian to be accepted as a cadet at West Point. It was this son who commanded the Creeks against the Seminoles in 1836. Major David Moniac was killed during that war.
(15) McQueen, Peter: Grandson of Sehoy Marchand (mother of Sehoy McGillivray) and the great-great-grandson of James McQueen, a British naval officer who jumped ship in Pensacola Bay in 1719. James McQueen, 1683-1811, had many wives during his 128 years upon this earth. Almost without exception, the "Breeds" who led both factions of the Creeks were his progeny.

page 173-174 footnotes - 52. Moniac, Sekaboo, the Shawnee prophet, Tecumseh, and many others involved in the war were descendants of James McQueen, the Scottish officer who jumped ship in Pensacola in 1716.

page 188 - 189

McQueen-Tallassee-Durant-Coppinger-Powell connection

James McQueen, a Scot, British naval officer, jumped ship, in Pensacola bay,
married a tallassee woman
a. Peter McQueen married Betsy Durant
b. Bob McQueen
c. Fulfunny McQueen
d. Ann McQueen married
(1) Mr. Coppinger
(2) John Powell
(a) Billy, or Oceola, Powell, famous chieftain of the seminoles in Florida

Moniac-Tuskegee connection

William Moniac married a Tuskegee Squaw
a. John Moniac married (??)
(a) Sophlena Thlotco Kaney Moniac became second wife of William Weatherford
b. Samuel Moniac, married Elizabeth Weatherford, Red Eagle's sister
c. David Moniac, married Polly Powell
(a) David Moniac
(b) Alexander Moniac
(c) Margaret Moniac, married S.J. Mcdonald
d. Levetia Moniac, married William Sizemore
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HISTORY OF ALABAMA, And Incidentally of Georgia and Mississippi,
from the Earliest Period.
Albert James Pickett
1851 (republished by Birmingham Book and Magazine Co. 1962)

p470 - 471 (relating to capture of Augustus Bowles - 1803) ............... They attended, and during the feast the unsuspecting freebooter was suddenly seized by concealed Indians, who sprang upon him, securely pinioned him and placed him in a canoe full of armed warriors. They then rapidly rowed down the river. Hawkins and John Forbes, of Pensacola, were in the town, but were concealed, until Sam McNac, a half-breed, had caused Bowles to be made a prisoner. Arriving at a point in the present Dallas county, the canoe was tied up, the prisoner conducted upon the bank, and a guard set over him. In the night the guard fell asleep, when Bowles gnawed his ropes apart, crept down the bank, got into the canoe, quietly paddled across the river, entered a thick cane swamp, and fled.

p 518 - 519 (about June 1813) The mail was carried to Pensacola and rifled of its contents in a Spanish trading house. Gen. Wilkinson, with his lady, June 25 had reached Sam McNac's, near the Catoma, with an escort, which had attended him from Mims' Ferry. He wrote back to Judge Toulmin, informing him of the dangers attendant upon a trip through the Creek nation, but that he was resolved to go on to Georgia. In a short time McNac, who for some time lived upon the Federal Road, for the purpose of aceommodating travellers, was driven off, some of his negroes stolen, while his cattle were driven to Pensacola for sale. Other half-breeds, suspeeted of friendship for the Americans, were treated in the same manner. Remaining concealed for some time upon his island in the Alabama, McNac ventured to visit his place upon the road. Here he suddenly encountered High-Head Jim, one of the prophets of Auttose, who, after shaking him by the hands, began to tremble all over, and to jerk in e!
very part of his frame, convulsing the ealves of the legs, and, from the severe agitation, getting entirely out of breath. This practice had been introduced by the prophet Josiah Francis, the brother-in-law of McNac, who said he was so instructed by the Great Spirit. Wishing to make terms for the moment, McNac pretended that he was sorry for his former friendship for the whites, and avowed his determination to join the hostiles. High-Head Jim, led away by his artifice, disclosed to him all their plans; that they were soon to kill the Big Warrior, Captain Isaacs, William McIntosh, the Mad Dragon's Son, the IJittle Prince, Spoke Kange, and Tallase Fixico, all prominent Chiefs of the nation; that, after the death of these traitors, the Creeks were to unite, in a common cause, against the Americans; those upon the Coosa, Tallapoosa and Black Warrior were to attack the settlements upon the Tensaw and Tombigby; those near the June Cherokees, with the assistance of the latter, were t!
o attack the Tennesseans; the Georgians were to fall by the fierce
were to exterminate the Mississippi population.

p 531 (talking about Weatherford - 1813) ............He was now with the large Indian army, conducting them down to attack the Tensaw settlers, among whom were his brother and several sisters, and also his half-brother, David Tait. How unhappily were these people divided! His sister, Hannah McNac, with all her sons, belonged to the war party, while the husband was a true friend of the Americans, and had fled to them for protection.

p576 - 577 (about Jan 1814) Colonel Russell, now left in sole command of Fort Claiborne, preferred charges against Major Cassels for disobedience of orders at the Holy Ground, and a court of inquiry, com1814 posed of Captain Woodruff, president, Captain J. E. Denkins and Lieutenant H. Chotard, decided that Sam McNac, the guide, was chiefly to blame for the failure of Cassels to occupy the position which had been assigned him. Another court of inquiry, composed of Colonel Carson and Lieutenant Wilcox, decided that the contractor of the army was solely to blame for the perishing condition of the expedition, as General Claiborne had given him ample instructions to furnish abundant supplies. The command had been entirely without meat for nine days.

p618 - 619 (March 1818) Two years previous to this, however, a few emigrants had settled on the Federal Road, near where Fort Dale was afterwards erected, in the present county of Butler, among whom were William Ogle, his wife and five children, with J. Dickerson. Another settlement had been formed in the "Flat," on the western border of that county. Sam McNac, who still lived near the Pinchoma, on the Federal Road, informed these emigrants that hostile Indians were prowling in that region, who meditated mischief. A temporary block-house was immediately erected at ___ Gary's, and those in the "Flat" began the construction of a fort, afterwards called Fort Bibb, enclosing the house of Captain Saffold, who had removed from the ridge to that place.
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THE ALABAMA HISTORICAL QUARTERLY
Marie Bankhead Owen, Editor
Emmett Kilpatrick, Co-Editor
Vol. 13 Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, 1951, Reprinted 1981

In reference to Indian Chief Jim Boy. ---------Here the Creeks were organized into a regiment and placed under the command of Major David Moniac. Jim Boy was with his regiment in two battles and in a number of skirmishes in the Seminole war. The battles were the second battle of Wahoo Swamp, fought in November, 1836, and the battle of Lake Monroe, fought February 8, 1837. The Creeks fought courageously in both these engagements.

Francis, Josiah, or Hillis Hadjo, Creek Chief, born probably about 1770, and in Autauga town, was the son of David Francis a white trader and silversmith, who lived many years in Autauga Town, and made silver ornaments and implements for the Indians. The name of his mother is not known, and apart from his father, the only other fact recorded as to his family relationship is that he was a half-brother of Sam Moniac.

In reference to Indian Chief William Weatherford. -------- Married: (1) to Mary Moniac, daughter of Sam Moniac, who was an Indian half-breed, and lived at the Holy Ground; (2) to Mary Stiggins. Among his children was: Charles, b. 1800, deceased, m. Elizabeth Stiggins, children, Charles, William and Elizabeth.

In reference to Creek Indian War. ----------- Outfits under Captain George Chisholm (the Montgomery True Blues), Captain John F. Connoley (the Selma Guards), Captain John Bonham (a Montgomery County command), an artillery outfit under command of Captain John Milton from Mobile, a company under Lieutenant David Moniac, and troops commanded by Captains Henderson, Jones, and Harrell saw service in subduing the natives.
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CREEK INDIANS
The Creek Indians and Their Florida Lands
1740-1823
James F. Doster
Garland Publishing Inc. New York & London, 1974

p 73 On June 29, 1813, Wilkinson addressed a letter from Manac's place to Judge Harry Toulmin at Fort Stoddert, from which I take the following excerpts (J. F. H. Claiborne, Mississippi as a Province, Territory and State, with Biographical Notices Or Eminent Citizens, (Jackson, 1880), I, 321:

........... At this place, I am assured by Manac and Ward, who are living in the woods and watching the plantation, that Francis and his followers, to the number Or more than three hundred, are assembled at a camp on the Alabama . . . Ward's wife . . . reported that the party thus encamped, were about to move down the river to break up the half-breed settlements and those of the citizens of the forks of the river. I know not what stress to lay on these wild reports, but the whole road is deserted--the Indians are all assembled, and their villages ahead of me, many towns on the Alabama and Tallapoosa and Coosa, are deserted, and consternation and terror are in every countenance I meet.

p 79 ............ found in a letter of Judge Harry Toulmin to General Ferdinand I. Claiborne, June 23, 1813, the original manuscript of which is in the Toulmin Papers in the Alabama Department of Archives and History. The significant excerpts follow:

They were still in Pensacola on Wednesday. Mr. Tate [David Tate, a nephew of Alexander McGillivray, educated in Great Britain] returned to inform us of what he had learnt. . . . Mr. Tate learned from persons whom he had seen that were carried down with them [the Indians],--that their language breathes vengeance on the white people, & that they have dropped some hints of a desire to attack the Tensaw settlement, (fourteen miles from this [Fort Stoddert]) on their return. Mr. Manac [Sam Manac, another nephew of Alexander McGillivray] also informs me that he believes their great object to be an attack on the white people. They aim indeed to put to death eight of their own chiefs.

p 123 - 124 {Jackson's orders to help hold the hostile Creeks in check - 16 Nov 1814} ........... The Majr. will send for Capt. Devereux as a guide, or may employ him to command a Spy company. All of the friendly Creeks who understand and speak the Creek language should be employed as linguisters and guides. Saml. Manac of the Friendly Creeks and his party will be of Great Service on this excursion and ought to be engaged--they are twelve in number, Many of Whom speak good English. The Majrs. discretion from the best information he can obtain, must govern him in the route; he will use great precaution to prevent ambuscade and Surprise; Perfect order, and silence, must be obtained on the line of march and no fireing Suffered unless at an enemy.
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WOODWARD'S REMINISCENCES OF THE: Creek, or Muscogee Indians. Georgia and Alabama
By Thomas S. Woodward, Louisiana

I shall never forget a visit that Major Cowles and myself paid to Billy Weatherford, the Quadroon, him about whom so much has been said and so little known. We remained some days, and among our crowd were Zach. McGirth, Davy Tait, the halfbrother to Weatherford, old Sam. Moniac, who, many years before, had accompanied Alex. McGillivray to New York, in General Washington's time.

I have seen Indians, as well as negroes, that traded with the French while there, though their stay was but a few years. James McQueen, a Scotchman--the first white man I ever heard of being among the Greeks--and a Polander, by the name of Moniac, with the Nitches Indians and Creeks, broke up the French settlement at the fork of the rivers.

I have often heard Sam Moniac say, that if Lott had not been killed at the time he was, it was his belief that the war could have been prevented. He and Billy Weatherford have often said to me as well as others, that the Big Warrior at the time Tecumseh made his talk at Tuckabatchy, was inclined to take the talk, and at heart, was as hostile as any, if he had not been a coward. I have no doubt, from what I have heard Weatherford say, he (W.) was as much opposed to that war as any one living: but when it became necessary to take sides, he went with his countrymen, and gave me his reasons for so doing.

Hague died and was buried on a mound near where there was once a little village, settled by the whites, called Augusta. This I have learned from Doyle, Walton, Sam Moniac, Billy Weatherford and many others. And Savannah Jack was his youngest son by the Uchee woman.

This was the situation of those chiefs and their people about the time and shortly after General Jackson reached Franca Choka Chula, or the old French trading-house, as it was called by the Indians. Weatherford sent up old Tom Carr, or Tuskegee Emarthla, and he soon learned through Sam Moniac, his brother-in-law, (who was always friendly,) that he was in no danger, and so he came to camp, (but not in the way that it has been represented.)

Col. Hawkins used to call him Timor Bob, and said he was as brave, if not the bravest man he ever knew. He was the interpreter for Col. Hawkins, and accompanied him to the Hickory Ground, with Sam Moniac, Billy Weatherford, Pinthlo Yoholo, or Swamp Singer, and old Eufau Harjo, or Mad Dog, at the time he arrested Boles, the Englishman, at the head of fifteen hundred Indian warriors.

The Tallasses quit their old settlements in the Talladega country, and it was immediately occupied by a band of Netches, under the control of a chief called Chenubby, and a Hollander by the name of Moniac. This man was the father of Sam Moniac, whom you in your History call McNae, thinking him to be of Scotch race.

Sehoy or Sehoya McPherson was brought up in her early days by the father of Sam Moniac. She lived a part of her time with Lauchlan McGillivray and Daniel McDonald. Her first husband was Col. John Tate, the last agent the English had among the Creeks. By Tate she had one son, Davy, who is remembered by many who are yet living. Davy Tate was a man of fine sense, great firmness and very kind to those with whom he was intimate, and remarkably charitable to strangers. But circumstances caused Tate to mix but little with the world after the country fell into the hands of the whites, and he never was well known by but few after that. I have stated to you before that Col. Tate died deranged between Flint River and Chattahoochee, and was buried near old Cuseta. Charles Weatherford was the second and last husband of Sehoy McPherson. They raised four children that I knew. Betsy, the oldest child, married Sam Moniac, and was the mother of Major David Moniac, who was educated at West Point!
and was killed by the Seminoles in the fall of 1836--he was educated at West Point in consequence of the faithful and disinterested friendship of his father to the whites. Billy was the next oldest, Jack next, and a younger daughter whose name I have forgotten. She married Capt. Shumac, a very intelligent officer of the United States army. I had seen Billy Weatherford before the war, but only knew him from character. The circumstance of him and Moniac aiding Col. Hawkins in the arrest of Bowles, made them generally known to the people of Georgia who wished to know anything about Indians.

I had been paid for my services in the previous campaign, had a pony, and that was all I needed. I made up a mess with Sam Sells, John Winslet, Billy McIntosh, Joe Marshall, Sam Moniac and others, and went where it suited me. This gave me an opportunity of becoming acquainted with all the little hostile bands and their leaders. As I have described to you before how the most of them were situated after Gen. Jackson reached the fork of the two rivers, Coosa and Tallapoosa, it will not be necessary now to do so. Though Weatherford was still at Moniac's Island when I reached Gen. Jackson's camp, Tom Carr, or Tuskegee Emarthla, came up and learned through Moniac that Billy Weatherford could come in with safety, as Col. Hawkins had taken it upon himself to let the General know who and what he, Weatherford, was.

Moniac was under the impression that he could find some cattle in the neighborhood of his cowpens, on the Pinchong creek. Several Indian countrymen and myself went with the Indians in search of the cattle,--Weatherford went with the crowd, and had to get a horse from Barney Riley, having none of his own; besides, had the exhibition of the white horse and deer been a reality, Major Eaton and others who made speeches for Weatherford would certainly have noticed it. ....................
I will go back to our cow hunt. At Moniac's cowpens we found no cattle, but killed plenty of deer and turkeys, and picked up the half brother of Jim Boy--George Goodwin.
Now let us turn to Weatherford. He was a man of fine sense, great courage, and knew much about our government and mankind in general--had lived with his half brother, Davy Tate, who was an educated and well informed man--had been much with his brother-in-law, Sam Moniac, who was always looked upon as being one of the most intelligent half-breds in the Nation, and was selected by Alexander McGillivray for interpreter at the time he visited Gen. Washington at New York. Although it has been said that McGillivray mastered the Latin and Greek languages, and although the letters of Alexander Leslie are published to the world as McGillivray's productions, he [McG.] knew too well how matters stood, and relied on Moniac. I have often seen a medal that Gen. Washington gave Moniac. He always kept it on his person, and it is with him in his grave at Pass Christian.

A talk was put out by the Warrior. Moniac and Weatherford attended the talk. No white man was allowed to be present. Tecumseh stated the object of his mission; that if it could be effected, the Creeks could recover all the country that the whites had taken from them, and that the British would protect them in their right. Moniac was the first to oppose Tecumseh's talk, and said that the talk was a bad one, and that he [Tecumseh] had better leave the Nation. The Big Warrior seemed inclined to take the talk. The correspondence was carried on through Seekaboo, who spoke English. After Moniac had closed, Weatherford then said to Seekaboo to say to Tecumseh, that the whites and Indians were at peace, and had been for years; that the Creek Indians were doing well, and that it would be bad policy for the Creeks, at least, to take sides either with the Americans or English, in the event of a war--(this was in 1811.)
.................. After this, matters calmed down until the opening of 1813. Moniac and Weatherford took a trip to the Chickasawha in Mississippi Territory, trading in beef cattle. On their return, they found that several chiefs had assembled at a place that was afterwards settled by one Townsend Robinson, from Anson county, N. C. They were taking the Ussa, or black drink, and had Moniac's and Weatherford's families at the square. They told Moniac and Weatherford that they should join or be put to death. Moniac boldly refused, and mounted his horse. Josiah Francis, his brother-inlaw, seized his bridle; Moniac snatched a war club from his hand, gave him a severe blow and put out, with a shower of rifle bullets following him. Weatherford consented to remain.

The Indians expected after this that the whites would pour into the Nation from all quarters, and most of them that were at Fort Mims returned to where Robinson had a plantation afterwards, and the place that Moniac had escaped from. The reason why they selected that place was, that there was on the North side of the river Nocoshatchy, or Bear creek, that which afforded the most impenetrable swamps in the whole country. But the movements of the whites were so slow that the Indians grew careless, and a few Indians, with Weatherford and the chief, Hossa Yoholo, and one or two others, made what has been known as the Holy Ground their head-quarters. Some time in December, Gen. Claiborne, piloted by Sam Moniac and an old McGillivray negro, got near the place before the Indians discovered them. The Indians began to cross their wives and children over the river; they had scarcely time to do that before the army arrived--a skirmish ensued, and the Indians, losing a few men, gave way i!
n every direction. ......................... So, now you have the bluffjumping story.
This story was told long before Weatherford died. Maj. Cowles and myself asked him how that report got out. He said Sam Moniac knew him, and seeing him on horse back on the brink of the bluff, and his disappearing so suddenly, caused those who saw him to believe that he had gone over the bluff.

The Tallassees then occupied a portion of Talladega county. In 1756 he moved the Tallassees down opposite Tuckabatchy, and settled the Netches under the chief Chenubby and Dixon Moniac, a Hollander, who was the father of Sam Moniac, at the Tallassee old fields, on the Tallasahatchy creek.

Vicey Cornells, the second daughter of Joe Cornells, married Alexander McGillivray; and after he died, she married Zach McGirth, and raised several daughters--one married Vardy Jolly, one Ned James, one Aleck Moniac, one Bill Crabtree, and the youngest, Sarah, went to Arkansas.

In the revolution there never was a Tallassee or a Netches known to take up arms against the colonies; that was the influence of McQueen and Dick Moniac, the Hollander. Nat Collins and myself located this old Indian upon his land; I forget his Indian name, but he was called Billy by the whites. He died in 1836.
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CREEK INDIAN HISTORY
A Historical Narrative of the Genealogy, Traditions and Downfall of the Ispocoga or Creek Indian Tribe of Indians
by One of the Tribe, George Stiggins, (1788-1845)
Introduction and Notes by William Stokes Wyman , (1830-1915)
Edited by Virginia Pounds Brown
Birmingham Public Library Press

page 119 (............ description related to battle of Holy Ground). The Indians and Negroes, being mostly afoot, saved themselves by swimming over the river. John Moniac and two others went through before the lines were closed.
Weatherford and McPherson, on horses, viewed the lines to see if there was any gap that would permit their escape; but they found it all closed.

page 161 Note 80. [Sam Moniac, half-blooded brother-in-law of Francis, described High-headed Jim's prophetic seizures: "He shook hands with me, and immediately began to tremble and jerk . . . and the very calves of his legs would be convulsed, and he would get entirely out of breath.... This practice was introduced in May or June last by the Prophet Francis." H. S. Halbert and T. H. Ball, The Creek War of 1813 and 1814, Frank L. Owsley, Jr., ed. (University: University of Alabama Press, 1969), p. 92.]
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THE FEDERAL ROAD: through Georgia, the Creek Nation, and Alabama, 1806-1836
Henry Deleon Southerland, Jr., and Jerry Elijah Brown - Maps by Charles Jefferson Hiers
Sponsored by the Historic Chattahoochee Commission
The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa and London

page 94-95 (................. describing stops along the road) Southwest of Colonel Wood's the next stop was Sam Manack's house, on Pinchony Creek. The first licensed tavern in Alabama, it operated for paying guests from about 1803 to 1816 and was mentioned by Lieutenant Luckett in the notes for his road survey in 1810. Lorenzo and Peggy Dow stopped there soon after the road had been cut and the trees notched to guide the travelers. In 1820, four years after Manack had moved out, Adam Hodgson came to a solitary log house in the woods after crossing two bad swamps. .........
Down from Manack's in Butler County was Fort Dale, established by Sam Dale after the Stroud-Ogle killings of 1818 as a defense against the hostile Indians led by Savannah Jack.

page 104 (....... from journal of Peggy Dow) We came across a family who were moving to the Mississippi--they had a number of small children; and although they had something to cover them like a tent, yet they suffered considerably from the rain the night before: and to add to that, the woman told me they had left an aged father at a man's house by the name of Manack one or two days before and that she expected he was dead perhaps by that time. They were as black almost as the natives, and the woman seemed very much disturbed at their situation. I felt pity for her--I thought her burthen was really heavier than mine. We kept on, and about the middle of the day we got to the house where the poor man had been left with his wife, son, and daughter. A few hours before we got there, he had closed his eyes in death--they had lain him out, and expected to bury him that evening; but they could not get any thing to make a coffin of, only split stuff to make a kind of a box, and so pu!
t him in the ground!

page 118 Sehoy I, who had first married Captain Marchand, had a second husband named Lachlan McGillivray; to that union three children were born: Sophia, who married Benjamin Durant; Janet, who married LeClerc Milfort; and Alexander McGillivray, who died in 1793 and was the last chief to dominate the entire Creek confederation. William Weatherford's daughter Betsy married Sam Manack, who operated a stand below Montgomery and whose name appears in many accounts. Their son David, who spelled his surname Moniac, was the first Indian to graduate from West Point. He was a brave, well-considered man, who easily passed for white, and was killed in the Second Seminole War--fighting against troops under the command of a halfbreed who passed for Indian, Osceola.

page 121 By the time the Federal Road had developed into a pioneer thoroughfare, the Indian traders with their international loyalties had either disappeared or lost their influence. In 1798 and 1799, Benjamin Hawkins had surveyed the white population of the Creek Nation and reported the names of some Indian traders and their families He listed names and occasionally the nationality: Christopher Heinckle, a German; Christian Hagle of Germany; Richard Baily, an Englishman; Nicholas White of Marseilles; Michael Elhart, a Dutchman; Patrick Lane of Ireland; John Townshend, an Englishman; Timothy Barnard, an interpreter; Captain Ellick; Stephen Hawkins; Obediah Low; Joe Marshall; Zachariah McGive (or McGirth); John McLeod; John O'Kelley; William Pound; John Proctor; James Quarles; James Russell; and others.

page 123 Familiar elements in a struggle dating at least from the opening of the horse path in 1806 reappear to complete the design: tensions between Creek factions and between whites and Indians generally; the conflict over national and states' rights; the peace treaties that brought war; the claims to land entitlements that brought bloodshed and lawsuits; a standing cast of characters--Andrew Jackson, Little Prince, Big Warrior, Menawa, William and Chilly McIntosh, William Walker, David Moniac, Jere Austill, Matthew Arbuckle, and Edmund P. Gaines; and the Federal Road itself, with all of its ruts, swamps, and sandbeds, still the agent of intrusion.

page 131 At Creek Stand, Dr. Motte also met David Moniac, "the lieutenant of the escort," who introduced Motte to his father, Sam Manack, "a venerable old Indian." Until that moment, Motte had thought the officer was white. Motte then heard the romantic story of the West Point graduate's two lives, as an Indian who "ranged with native freedom over the woods and plains" and as an officer who showed "gratitude to the government which had fostered him in his youth."

page 132/133 Creeks not departing of their own will or in chains had the option of joining the Seminoles in a war that was an extension of the outbreak of 1836. The fighting in Florida dragged on until 1842, increasingly remote from the Federal Road. On November 15, 1836, six days after he was promoted to major, David Moniac was killed at Wahoo Swamp, leading U.S. troops against Indians fighting under Osceola.
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Red Eagle and the wars with the Creek Indians of Alabama
By GEORGE CARY EGGLESTON
New York Dodd, Mead and Company, Publishers

page 68/69 A friendly half-breed, McNac by name, was driven from his home by one of the petty marauding parties spoken of a few pages back, and his cattle were carried to Pensacola by the marauders, and sold. After hiding in the swamps for some time, McNac at last ventured out at night to visit his home and see precisely what damage had been done. He was unlucky enough to meet High Head Jim at the head of a party of hostile Indians, and as there was no chance of safety either in flight or fight, McNac resorted to diplomacy, which in this case, as in many others, meant vigorous lying. He declared that he had abandoned his peaceful proclivities, and had made up his mind to join the war party. McNac appears to have had something like a genius for lying, as he succeeded in imposing his fabrications upon High Head Jim, who, suspicious and treacherous as he was, believed McNac implicitly, and confided to him the plan of the hostile Creeks.

............... McNac bore this information at once to the intended victims, and thus enabled them to secure their safety in various ways; but the civil war increased in its fury.

page 71/72 Meantime the white people had at last become thoroughly alarmed. The news which McNac brought of his conversation with High Head Jim convinced even the most sceptical that a war of greater or smaller proportions was at hand, and it was the conviction of the wisest men among them that the best way to save themselves from impending destruction was to strike in time.

page 81 This girl's father, when McNac's discovery of the Indian plans spread consternation through the settlements, fled with his daughter to the Tensaw country and took refuge in Fort Mims; and Red Eagle had thus a sweetheart added to the list of persons near and dear to him, whose lives he must put in danger if he went to war.
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PASSPORTS OF SOUTHEASTERN PIONEERS, 1770- 1823
Indian, Spanish and other Land Passports
for Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia,Mississippi, Virginia, North and South Carolina
DOROTHY WILLIAMS POTTER
GATEWAY PRESS, INC., Baltimore, 1982

>From Colonel Benjamin Hawkins.

Creek Agency, April 6th, 1812.

On the 26th ult. Thomas Meredith, Sen. a respectable old man, travelling with his family to the Mississippi territory, was murdered on the post road, at Kittome, a creek 150 miles from this. Sam Macnac a half breed of property, who keeps entertainment on the road, at whose house Meredith is buried, calls it an accident. Thomas Meredith, son of the deceased, was an eye witness, says, "there was murder committed on the body of Thomas Meredith, Sen. at Kittome creek, by Maumouth and others, who appeared to be in liquor; that is, Maumouth himself, but none of the others. The company were all on the other side of the creek, except my father and an old man. They fell on him without interruption, and killed him dead as he was trying to make his escape in a canoe, and sorely wounded the other, with knives and sticks, so much so, that I fear we shall have to bury him on the way." The Speaker of the nation and some of his Executive council were with me, returning home, at the time I rec!
eived the communication, which I read to them, and directed, on their return, to convene their chiefs, and cause justice to be done without delay. Maumouth is an old chief, known to all of us. Several travellers have passed and repassed since, and I hear of no further interruption.
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McIntosh and Weatherford, Creek Indian Leaders
Benjamin W. Griffith, Jr.
The University of Alabama Press
Tuscaloosa and London

page 52/53 Gaining the approval of most members of the council, Hawkins appointed a group of men to capture Bowles; the party included Sam Moniac, Bob Walton, Mad Dog, Charles Weatherford, and his son William.

Hawkins and John Forbes led the party as it marched into the area where Bowles and the Seminoles were encamped among the Cherokee delegates. When the Indians who supported Bowles discerned the purpose of Hawkins's visit, they began showing signs of resisting the arrest of their leader. Hawkins announced boldly that he had come to arrest Bowles and that they must deliver him up. He then ordered Moniac and young Weatherford to step forward and make the arrest. To the sound of scores of rifles clicking to the cocked position, Moniac and Red Eagle, with reckless courage, seized Bowles and held his wrists to be shackled.

...................... Hawkins advised the Indians, who were embarrassed at the circumstances of the capture at Hickory Ground, to turn the prisoner over to the Spanish for the $4,500 reward. Moniac, the Weatherford's, and the other Upper Creeks set off for Mobile with the manacled Bowles, rowing down the Alabama River in a pirogue.

....................... The circumstances of him and Moniac aiding Col. Hawkins in the arrest of Bowles made them generally known to the people of Georgia who wished to know anything about Indians.

page 73 According to Dale and Sam Moniac, who was William Weatherford's brother-in-law, Tecumseh played a cat-and-mouse game with the Creeks and Hawkins.

page 77/78 Another account has Weatherford confronting Tecumseh at a small council, with no white men present, but the content of the rejoinder to the Shawnee is virtually the same: the best policy for the Creeks was to remain neutral and though the English and Americans were equally oppressive, the Creeks should side with the Americans if forced into war. Sam Moniac, Weatherford's brother-in-law, agreed with Red Eagle and also spoke in favor of that position.

page 80/81 In the spring of 1812 several widely reported murders of whites by Indians were grim symptoms of the discord engendered by the prophets. On March 26, Thomas Meredith, Sr., described by Hawkins as "a respectable old man," was murdered on the post road at Kittome Creek as he was traveling with his family to the Mississippi Territory. The incident occurred near Sam Moniac's inn, which he kept for the accommodation of travelers on the post road, and Meredith was buried on the inn grounds. Moniac called the killing an accident, but Meredith's son, an eyewitness, said the murder was committed by Maumouth, an old Autossee chief, and others, while "in liquor."
......................... Hawkins wrote in June that war "would probably be realized in a month." Thomas Woodward wrote: "I have often heard Sam Moniac say, that if Lott had not been killed at the time he was, it was his belief that the war could have been prevented.

page 88-90 In the summer of 1813, if a contemporary account is correct, William Weatherford and his brother-in-law Sam Moniac confronted the prophets' wrath in a scene of high drama. According to Thomas Woodward, who knew both men well, Weatherford and Moniac returned from a cattle-trading expedition in Mississippi Territory to find an astonishing scene taking place on Tallewassee Creek near Red Eagle's plantation. Several Red Stick chiefs and prophets were taking the black drink, and the families of Moniac and Weatherford were assembled, perhaps as hostages. The leaders included Peter McQueen, the part-Scots chief of the Tallassees, and two prophets, HighHeaded Jim and Josiah Francis. They told Weatherford and Moniac that unless they agreed to join them in their Red Stick war, the two would be put to death in front of their families. Moniac immediately refused and mounted his horse to ride away. His brother-in-law, the newly made prophet Josiah Francis, seized his bridle, b!
ut Moniac snatched Francis's war club and struck him a stunning blow. Then he rode away in a shower of rifle bullets. Weatherford agreed to remain.
.................... On July 10 McQueen and High-Headed Jim (also called Jim Boy) led a band of Creeks--100 by Indian account, 350 according to Hawkins--southward with many packhorses to procure the supplies of war. It was this group of Indians that Moniac met near his property, as he stated in a deposition on July 13, 1813, which reveals firsthand much of the anxiety of these turbulent times. After a brief mention of Tecumseh's visit, Moniac said that it was not until about the previous Christmas that any of his people began to dance the war dance. He added that the war dance before the battle, rather than after, was a northern custom and stated that his brother-in-law Josiah Francis, "who also pretended to be a prophet," was at the head of about forty Creeks who initially began dancing the war dance of the People of the Lakes. "Their number has very much increased since,"he said, "and there are probably now more than half of the Creek Nation who have joined them." Moniac sa!
id he was "afraid of the consequences of a murder having been committed on the mail route," so he went to his plantation on the river, where he remained for some time. The incident referred to is the murder of Meredith, which took place near Moniac's property. Some time in June, Moniac left to take some steers to Pensacola, and while he was away, Sam's brother John and Sam's son, who had joined the war party, led a band of Red Sticks (including Josiah Francis) who burned his river plantation, stole his horses and cattle, and took away thirty-six black slaves.24
About July 11 Moniac returned to his home on the post road and found some Indians camped nearby. He tried to avoid them but could not and was approached by High-Headed Jim. Moniac reported: "He shook hands with me, and immediately began to tremble and jerk in every part of his frame, and the very calves of his legs would be convulsed, and he would get entirely out of breath with the agitation." Moniac said that this practice of violent convulsions had been introduced the previous May or June by the prophet Francis, "who says that he was instructed by the Spirit." Moniac stated that High-Headed Jim told him the Red Sticks had a letter from a British general that would enable them to get ammunition from the Spanish governor, and they would continue to get ammunition until each town in the Creek Nation had five horse loads. Then they would make a general attack on the American settlements. He also told Moniac that the war was to be against the whites and not a civil war among the!
Indians. He said they only wanted to kill the Indians who had "taken the talk of the whites," and the death list included William McIntosh, Big Warrior, Alexander Cornells, and Captain Isaacs. The first three named, of course, had been key figures in the execution of Little Warrior and his party. Isaacs, a mixed-blood who had accompanied Little Warrior and the others on the ill-fated visit to the Shawnees, had saved his own neck by defecting and testifying against Little Warrior. Moniac immediately sounded the alarm that the Red Sticks were storing up arms and ammunition for the impending war, and soon local militiamen and military leaders, including General Ferdinand L. Claiborne and Andrew Jackson, were reacting swiftly to protect the white settlers in the Creek Nation.

page 97 (................. relating to battle of Burnt Corn) Colonel Caller and Major Wood lost their way in the forest, and when they did not return, their friends became alarmed. General Claiborne asked Sam Moniac, Dixon Bailey, and David Tate to lead parties in search of the officers or their remains, and after fifteen days in the woods the two men were found, half-starved and delirious.

page 130 Thomas S. Woodward, however, who knew Weatherford personally, said that Red Eagle told him he never jumped off the bluff. He told Woodward that his brother-in-law Sam Moniac, who acted as a guide for Claiborne, had recognized him as he appeared on the bluff mounted on Arrow. When he and the horse disappeared suddenly, they assumed he had leaped over the bluff.

page 254 Weatherford had married three times, twice under Indian law to Mary Moniac and to Sapoth Thlaine. His third and last wife was Mary Stiggins, whom he married under white law in 1817.................. He still has many descendants in southern Alabama. One of his best-known relatives was a nephew, David Moniac, who became the first minority graduate of the United States Military Academy at West Point.
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Lachlan McGillivray, Indian Trader
The Shaping of the Southern Colonial Frontier
Edward J. Cashin
The University of Georgia Press, Athens and London

page 73 Her name was Sehoy, and she was the wife of Charles Weatherford and the mother of the Creek general of the War of 1812, William Weatherford. Woodward is positive that this Sehoy was not the daughter of Lachlan McGillivray but of his early associate Malcolm McPherson and that she was a blood relative of Georgia Senator John McPherson Berrien. She was reared in the house of Jacob Moniac, a trader, and lived for a time with Lachlan McGillivray's family. She first married David Taitt, deputy to Indian superintendents John Stuart and Thomas Brown.

page 77 Alexander McGillivray took two wives: one was the daughter of Jacob Moniac, the other the daughter of Joseph Cornell. Moniac and Cornell both acted as interpreters for McGillivray, and both resided at Little Tallassee.

page 292 Most of Taitt's party turned back after learning that Campbell was no longer at Augusta, but Taitt, McGillivray, and a few companions crossed through enemy territory and reached Savannah. According to Jacob Moniac, who was with them, McGillivray had to make a run for it between two lines of fire. It is passing strange that Alexander McGillivray, who never considered himself much of a warrior, should have risked his life to get to Savannah, where he was not needed in any military sense.
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The Southern Indians and Benjamin Hawkins, 1796-1816
by Florette Henri
University of Oklahoma Press, Norman and London

page 270 William Weatherford, or Red Eagle (a nephew of the late Alex McGillivray and probably Alex Cornells's brother-in-law), had grave misgivings and feared Tecumseh's war plan would ruin the Creek Nation, although he eventually joined the movement hoping to exercise some control on events. Another part-Creek who attended Tecumseh's talk and seems to have been unconvinced was Sam MacNac, who kept one of the inns on the post road.

page 272 A white man, Thomas Meredith, was killed on the post road. Sam MacNac said it was an accident, but Meredith's son claimed it was murder, and the Creek chiefs promised justice.

page 272 All the property of Sam MacNac, who had not joined the Red Clubs, was destroyed. The stench of rotting animal flesh hung in the air for miles around the towns attacked by the Red Clubs, who were carrying out with fervor their avowed aim to destroy everything received from the Americans, and all the chiefs friendly to white ways, and every man who would not join them.
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History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842
Revised Edition, 1992
John K. Mahon
University of Florida Press / Gainesville

Major David Moniac now boldly sought a place to ford the narrow stream. A bullet dropped him, and his body sank in the opaque water. Moniac was no ordinary officer; he was a full-blooded Creek and a graduate of the United States Military Academy. Unit by unit, man by man, the rest of Call's army floundered to the bank of the branch and added its firepower. A heavy gun battle continued across the ribbon of water until around 3 :30 P.M. When the hostile fire seemed to slacken, the white commanders had to decide what they should do next. They decided not to try to force a crossing, but rather to withdraw and seek a supply point.
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CREEKS & SEMINOLES
The Destruction and Regeneration of the Muscogulge People
J. Leitch Wright, Jr., 1986
University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London

page 61 Osceola repeatly proclaimed he was a pure-blood Muskogee, but his mother's spouse was the trader William Powell, and during Oceola's lifetime whites most often called him Powell. Early in the nineteenth century Bowlegs became a common Seminole name, and the interloper-adventurer William Augustus Bowles may have been responsible. The prevalence of so many Indians named Grayson (Grierson), Perryman, McIntosh, Moniac (Manac, Monthack), and Barnard can be attributed to white traders.

page 219 The father of the friendly Creek David Moniac, perhaps just to escape creditors, moved from the Little River in southern Alabama more than a hundred miles back into the Indian country with his kinfolk to the north. And there were many other examples of such Indian relocations.

page 231 Mestizo Muscogulge youths sometimes were accepted by whites and sometimes not. One of McIntosh's sons was educated not at a mission school among the Lower Creeks but with white children at Milledgeville. David Moniac, through the influence of his uncle, the friendly Creek David Tate, enrolled at West Point in 1817 and was commissioned a second lieutenant five years later.

page 237 At the same time farther north in Alabama the angry Upper Creek Tuskeneha snapped his loaded rifle at proremoval Alexander Moniac. As Neamathla became obstinate and eventually moved into Alabama, in white eyes he was transforming himself from a Seminole into a Creek, and Americans decided that the acculturated and more accommodating mestizo, the Miccosukee John Hicks (Tuckose Emathla), should be head of the Seminole nation.

page 274 Major David Moniac, whose kinsmen had died inside Fort Mims, had graduated from West Point in the I820S. When the Creek and Seminole Wars broke out he volunteered for active duty and accompanied the Creek regiment into Florida, surprising white soldiers that he was not a white officer. When searching for a ford giving access to Wahoo Swamp, Moniac was cut down by the enemy, and the press lamented the passing of the valiant West Pointer. Newspapers made no mention, but it is safe to assume that the Seminole who killed Moniac took satisfaction in dispatching an American soldier and a Muskogee warrior with only one shot.

page 311/312 To his surprise Major Ethan Allen Hitchcock, while investigating frauds of white contractors supplying the Indians, discovered that Hillis Haya's daughter, Milly Francis, poverty-stricken and with three surviving children, was living on the Arkansas River near Fort Gibson. In 1818 she had saved Duncan McCrimmon from being burned by Neamathla's and Hillis Haya's warriors on the Wakulla River. Milly's father had been executed at Saint Marks, and her brother Earle had died in a Montgomery jail. Sympathy for the distressed Milly, this latter-day Pocahontas who had rescued young McCrimmon, was aroused. In 1844 Congress granted this mestizo a ninety-six-dollar pension and a twenty-dollar medal for her conduct during the First Seminole War. Milly made no formal application for the pension, and for several years nothing happened. Creek agent James Logan, visiting her children in 1848, discovered that Milly, not quite fifty, had recently died of consumption. Two of her ch!
ildren, who had families of their own, spoke English. Milly's eldest son Joseph said he would be proud to accept the medal and would carefully preserve it. Some of Hillis Haya's progeny treasured Cockburn's belligerent proclamations; others a medal from the United States Congress.
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THE CREEK WAR,1813 and 1814
H. S. Halbert and T. H. Ball
Edited, with Introduction and Notes,, By Frank L. Owsley Jr., 1969, (originally published 1895)
University of Alabama Press, Southern Historical Publications No. 15

page 66/67 "A talk was put out " by Big Warrior. This Weatherford and another Creek of mixed blood called Sam Moniac, the original name having been McNac, attended. "No white man was allowed to be present." Weatherford reports, through General Woodward: "Tecumseh stated the object of his mission; that if it could be effected the Creeks could recover all the country that the whites had taken from them; and that the British would protect them in their rights." To Tecumseh's speech Moniac objected. He said the talk was a bad one, and he said that Tecumseh "had better leave the nation."

page 85/86 CREEK AGENCY, April 6, 1812.
On the 26th ult., Thomas Meredith, Sr., a respectable old man, travelling with his family to the Mississippi Territory was murdered on the post road, at Kittome a creek 150 miles from this. Sam Macnac, a half breed, of large property, who keeps entertainment on the road, at whose house Meredith is buried, calls it an accident. Colonel Hawkins then details circumstances and gives evidence showing it was a murder.

page 90 The murderers referred to in this valuable letter are no doubt those concerned in the murder of Thomas Meredith and William, or as some call him, Arthur, Lott. General Woodward says: "I have often heard Sam Moniac say, that if Lott had not been killed at the time he was, it was his belief that the war could have been prevented."

page 91/92/93 MISSISSIPPI TERRITORY, WASHINGTON DISTRICT.

The Deposition of Samuel Manac, of lawful age, a Warrior of the Creek Nation.

About the last of October, thirty Northern Indians came down with Tecumseh, who said he had been sent by his brother, the prophet. They attended our council at the Tuccabache, and had a talk for us. I was there for the space of two or three days, but every day whilst I was there, Tecumseh refused to deliver his talk, and on being requested to give it, said that the sun had gone too far that day. The day after I came away, he delivered his talk. It was not till about Christmas that any of our people began to dance the war dance. The Muscogees have not been used to dance before war, but after. At that time about forty of our people began this Northern custom, and my brother-in-law, Francis, who also pretends to be a prophet, was at the head of them. Their number has very much increased since, and there are probably now more than half of the are Creek nation who have joined them.
Being afraid of the consequences of a murder having been committed on the mail route, I had left my home on the road, and had gone down to my plantation on the river. I stayed there some time. I went to Pensacola with some steers, during which time, my sister and brother, who have joined the war party, came and got off a number of my horses and other stock, and thirty-six of my negroes. About one or two and twenty days ago, I went up to my house on the road, and found some Indians camped near it whom I tried to avoid, but could not. An Indian came to me, who goes by the name of High-Headed Jim, and whom I found had been appointed to head a party sent from the Auttasee Town, on the Tallapoosa, on a trip to Pensacola. He shook hands with me, and immediately began to tremble and jerk in every part of his frame, and the very calves of his legs would be convulsed, and he would get entirely out of breath with the agitation. This practice was introduced in May or June last by the Pro!
phet Francis, who says that he was instructed by the Spirit. High-Headed Jim asked what I meant to do. I said that I should sell my property and buy ammunition, and join them. He then told me that they were going down to Pensacola to get ammunition,and that they had not a letter from a British General which would enable them to receive ammunition from the Governor. That it had been given to the Little Warrior, and saved by his Nephew when he was killed, and sent down to Francis. High-Head told me that then they went back with their supply, another body of men would go down for another supply of ammunition, and that ten men would go out of each Town, and that they calculated on five horse loads for every Town. He said that they were to make a general attack on the American Settlements-- that the Indians on the waters of the Coosa and Tallapoosa and on the Black Warrior, were to attack the Settlements on the Tombigby and Alabama, particularly the Tensaw and Fork Settlements.--Th!
at the Creek Indians, bordering on the Cherokees, were to attack t
Creeks were to attack the Georgians --That the Choctaws also had joined them and were to attack the Mississippi Settlements.--That the attack was to be made at the same time in all places where they got furnished with ammunition. I found, from my sister, that they were treated very rigorously by the Chiefs, and that many, particularly the women among them, (two daughters of the late Gen. McGillivray, who had been induced to join them to save their property,) were very desirous to leave them, but could not.
I found, from the talk of High-Head, that the war was to be against the whites and not between Indians themselves,--that all they wanted was to kill those who had taken the talk of the whites, viz: the Big Warrior, Alex. Cornells, Capt. Isaac, Wm. McIntosh, the Mad Dragon's son, the little Prince Spoko Kange and Tallasee Thicksico.
They have destroyed a large quantity of my cattle, and burnt my houses on my river plantation, as well as those of James Cornells and Leonard McGee.

(Signed) his
SAMUEL S. M. MANAC.
mark.
Sworn and subscribed before me, one of the U. S. Judges for the Mississippi Territory, this 2d day of August, 1813.HARRY TOULMIN.
A true copy.
GEO. T. Ross, Lt. Col. V.

This deposition, although sworn to by as friendly and trusty a man as Sam Moniac, must not all be taken as reliable history. The reader must not suppose the October mentioned to be in the year 1812, as would be natural, but in 1811. In what year the Christmas was can only be conjectured, so far as the deposition is concerned.

page 94 Thus, it seems, the civil war, so called, among the Creeks, began. The hostile bands also commenced killing the cattle of the friendly Indians, as Moniac testified, or driving them of and selling them.

page 95/96 And it may be here observed that Tecumseh seems to have had no influence over Weatherford. Woodward says that Sam Moniac and Weatherford, returning from a trip into the Mississippi Territory, where they had been "trading in beef cattle," found several chiefs assembled--it is said on Tallewassee Creek, a mile and a half from the Alabama River--and taking the "black drink."
These chiefs told Weatherford and Moniac that they must join them or be put to death. The following are Woodward's own words: " Moniac boldly refused and mounted his horse. Josiah Francis, his brother-in-law, seized his bridle. Moniac snatched a war club from his hand, gave him a severe blow and put out, with a shower of rifle bullets following him. Weatherford consented to remain.

page 175 (............ from letter of Charles Weatherford

" Billy Weatherford was married three times, twice under the Indian law. His first wife, my grandmother, was Mary Moniac, originally spelled McNac. She died in 1804 at Point Thloly, which is in Lowndes county. His second wife was Sapoth Thlanie. I never heard where or when she died. His third and last wife was Mary Stiggins. They were married under the white law in 1817. She died near Mount Pleasant, Monroe county, 1832.
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The Seminoles
Edwin C. McReynolds
1957, Nornan, University of Oklahoma Press

page 57 (.......... events leading to war) Sam McNac, a Creek of mixed blood who was a partisan of Big Warrior (Tustenuggee Thlocko), deceived High-Head Jim (Jim Boy) as to his allegiance, and learned the major plans of the Red Sticks. They intended to make a sudden and concerted attack in many quarters; they hoped to kill Big Warrior, Captain Isaacs, William McIntosh, Little Prince, the Mad Dragon's son, Spoke Kange, Tallassee Fixico, and other "traitors."
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WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BOWLES
Director General of the Creek Nation
By J. Leitch Wright, Jr.
1967, University of Georgia Press - Athens

page 166/167 With the approval of most of the council, a party of Upper Creeks--half-breeds at some time employed by Forbes and friends of the deceased McGillivray, including Sam Moniac, who had gone to New York with McGillivray, Charles Weatherford, Bob Walton, Mad Dog, and the Singer--headed by Forbes and Hawkins, marched boldly into Bowles's camp, seized the Director General, and placed him in handcuffs.

Regardless of the legality, William was in irons and was entrusted to Indians for delivery to Mobile. Closely guarded by Moniac, Weatherford, and other Upper Creeks, he made his way down the Alabama River in a pirogue.

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